Nicotine replacement therapySIB-1553AAcetylcholine receptorGum base: Gum base is the non-nutritive, non-digestible, water-insoluble masticatory delivery system used to carry sweeteners, flavors and any other substances in chewing gum and bubble gum. It provides all the basic textural and masticatory properties of gum.Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromeTobacco cessation clinicBesins HealthcareLights (cigarette type): Cigarettes labeled as “Lights,” “Milds,” or “Low-tar,” are considered to have a “lighter,” less pronounced flavour than regular cigarettes. These cigarette brands may also contain lower levels of tar, nicotine, or other chemicals inhaled by the smoker.Self-administration: Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself. A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient.QuadazocineConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.AconitineOxymatrineHerbal smokeless tobaccoReward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Nicotiana glauca: Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither [nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum].AnatabineInformation hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementBreath carbon monoxide: Breath carbon monoxide is the level of carbon monoxide in a person's exhalation. It can be measured in a breath carbon monoxide test, generally by using a carbon monoxide breath monitor (breath CO monitor), such as for motivation and education for smoking cessation and also as a clinical aid in assessing carbon monoxide poisoning.PNU-99,194: (maleate) (hydrochloride)Dopamine receptorBenazeprilBeta-Bungarotoxin: β-Bungarotoxin is a form of bungarotoxin that is fairly common in Krait (Bungaros multicinctus) venoms.Smokefree Environments Amendment Act 2003: The Smokefree Environments Amendment Bill was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand on 3 December 2003. The smoking ban legislation calls for progressive introduction of various clauses to totally ban smoking in all workplaces including offices, clubs, pubs, restaurants, airports, schools etc.Ventral tegmental area: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain (mesencephalon). The VTA is the origin of the dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and is widely implicated in the drug and natural reward circuitry of the brain.NBQXNitrosamine: Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, that is, a nitroso group bonded to an amine. Most nitrosamines are carcinogenic.Animals and tobacco smoke: Animals are exposed to tobacco smoke and other cigarette by-products through their use as experimental subjects and through contact with smokers, as in the case of pets in houses where smoking takes place.TerpyridineSynaptic gating: Synaptic gating is the ability of neural circuits to gate inputs by either suppressing or facilitating specific synaptic activity. Selective inhibition of certain synapses has been studied thoroughly (see Gate theory of pain), and recent studies have supported the existence of permissively gated synaptic transmission.