Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Depth Charge (horse): Depth Charge (1941–1965) was a Thoroughbred son of Bold Venture who went on to become an outstanding sire of American Quarter Horse racehorses.Simmons Legends: Outstanding Quarter Horse Stallions and Mares p.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Monoclonal antibody therapyBelmont Park, Exeter: Belmont Park (also called Belmont Pleasure Grounds) is a public park in Exeter, England provided by Exeter City Council.East St. Louis and Suburban Railway: The East St. Louis and Suburban Railway was an interurban railroad that operated in Illinois.Oropouche feverDistributed cache: In computing, a distributed cache is an extension of the traditional concept of cache used in a single locale. A distributed cache may span multiple servers so that it can grow in size and in transactional capacity.West Nile virus in the United States: The West Nile virus quickly spread across the United States after the first reported cases in Queens, New York in 1999. The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence.California encephalitis virusEnterovirus cis-acting replication elementList of West Nile virus outbreaks: *United States: From 1999 through 2001, the CDC confirmed 149 West Nile virus infections, including 18 deaths. In 2002, a total of 4,156 cases were reported, including 284 fatalities.Rabies virus: The rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies transmission can occur through the saliva of animals and less commonly through contact with human saliva.Saint Louis University School of Public HealthSchmallenberg virus: Schmallenberg virus is the informal name given to a recently isolated orthobunyavirus, which has not been given a formal name , initially reported in November 2011 to cause congenital malformations and stillbirths in cattle, sheep, goats, and possibly alpaca. It appears to be transmitted by midges (Culicoides spp.Andes virusCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Pseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Peplomer: A peplomer is a glycoprotein spike on a viral capsid or viral envelope. as cited in These protrusions will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell: they are essential for both host specificity and viral infectivity.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Cytopathic effectCanadian Thoroughbred Horse Society: The Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society (CTHS) is an organization headquartered in Toronto, Canada that was founded in 1906 to assist Thoroughbred horse breeders. Since 1982, there have been provincial divisions in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan.Rotavirus: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. It is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the family Reoviridae.ConjunctivitisHaemagogus: Haemagogus, is a genus of mosquitoes belonging to the family Culicidae. They mainly occur in Central America and northern South America (including Trinidad), although some species inhabit forested areas of Brazil, and range as far as northern Argentina.Nephropathia epidemicaHemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Meta-Hydroxyphenylhydracrylic acidList of mystery diseases: A mystery disease is a disease that has not yet been identified. Reasons for lack of identification of etiology include lack of professional interest, difficult access, and lack of resources, in addition to being unknown to medicine.Envelope glycoprotein GP120: Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. The 120 in its name comes from its molecular weight of 120 kDa.Dengue fever outbreaksTransmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus: Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus (TGEV) is a virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus, species Alphacoronavirus 1. TGEV are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a helical symmetry.Japanese encephalitis vaccineColes PhillipsArbovirus encephalitisRetrograde tracing: Retrograde tracing is a research method which is used in neuroscience to trace neural connections from their point of termination (the synapse) to their source (the cell body). The opposite technique is anterograde tracing, which is used to trace neural connections from their source to their point of termination (i.Radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer: Radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer (RIPA buffer) is a lysis buffer used to lyse cells and tissue, for radio immunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). This buffer is more denaturing than NP-40 or Triton X-100 lysis buffer because it contains the ionic detergents SDS and sodium deoxycholate as active constituents and is particularly useful for disruption of nuclear membranes in the preparation of nuclear extracts.Bovine herpesvirus 4: Bovine herpesvirus 4 is a member of the Herpesviridae family. It is part of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae and genus Rhadinovirus.Malcolm BrabantAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Coltivirus: Coltivirus is a genus of viruses (belonging to the Reoviridae family) that infects vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. It includes the causative agent of Colorado tick fever.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Mumps virus: Mumps virus is the causative agent of mumps, a well-known common childhood disease characterised by swelling of the parotid glands, salivary glands and other epithelial tissues, causing high morbidity and in some cases more serious complications such as deafness. Natural infection is currently restricted to humans and the virus is transmitted by direct contact, droplet spread, or contaminated objects.Global Alliance for Rabies Control: right|100px|Global Alliance for Rabies Control LogoKeshan diseaseAngora goat: The Angora goat () is a breed of domestic goat that is named after Ankara, Turkey, historically known as Angora. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as mohair.New Zealand rabbitVaccinationSeroconversionHexon protein: In molecular biology, the hexon protein is a major coat protein found in Adenoviruses. Hexon coat proteins are synthesised during late infection and form homo-trimers.MUMPS users: The United States Veterans Administration was one of the earliest organizations to adopt MUMPS as the programming language for a major project. Their early projects, and contributions to the library of free MUMPS code, are still being used today.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Primary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Epitope mapping: Epitope mapping is the process of experimentally identifying the binding sites, or ‘epitopes’, of antibodies on their target antigens. Identification and characterization of the binding sites of antibodies can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics.