HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.Ventricular action potentialPatch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.Periodic current reversalPlace cellSilent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.Axon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Oblique dendrite: An oblique dendrite is a dendrite that branches from an apical dendrite which emerge from the apex of a pyramidal cell. Oblique dendrites typically branch one to two times before terminating.Interoceptor: An interoceptor is a sensory receptor that detects stimulus within the body. Examples of stimuli that would be detected by interoceptors include blood pressureCampbell, Neil A.Olfactory receptor: Olfactory receptors expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons are responsible for the detection of odor molecules. Activated olfactory receptors are the initial player in a signal transduction cascade which ultimately produces a nerve impulse which is transmitted to the brain.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.TBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.PivagabineReversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis: Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS) , also known as primary lateral sclerois (PLSJ), is a rare genetic disorder, with a small number of reported cases, characterized by progressive weakness and stiffness of muscles in the arms, legs, and face. The disorder damages motor neurons, which are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control muscle movement.Plateau potentials: Plateau potentials, caused by persistent inward currents (PICs), are a type of electrical behaviour seen by cells in the spinal cord. They are of particular importance to spinal motor systems.Rostral ventromedial medulla: The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). The rostral ventromedial medulla sends descending inhibitory and excitatory fibers to the dorsal horn spinal cord neurons.Dopamine receptorParvalbuminLipoatrophia semicircularis: Lipoatrophia semicircularis (also known as semicircular lipoatrophy) is a medical condition in humans, commonly known as ribbed thighs.Neuropeptide S: Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas. NPS binds specifically to a newly de-orphaned G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Excitotoxicity: Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances. This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor are overactivated by glutamatergic storm.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCentral tegmental tract: The central tegmental tractKamali A, Kramer LA, Butler IJ, Hasan KM. Diffusion tensor tractography of the somatosensory system in the human brainstem: initial findings using high isotropic spatial resolution at 3.Neuromorphology: Neuromorphology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; μορφή, morphé, “form”; -λογία, -logia, “study of”[is the study of nervous system] form, shape, and structure. The study involves looking at a particular part of the nervous system from a [[Molecular biology|molecular and cellular level and connecting it to a physiological and anatomical point of view.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.P7C3Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.Rolf Hassler: Rolf Hassler (1914-1984) was a German pathologist who made important discoveries on the pathophisiology and treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).Brain healing: Brain healing is the process that occurs after the brain has been damaged. If an individual survives brain damage, the brain has a remarkable ability to adapt.Cervical ganglia: The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. These emerging postganglionic nerves synapse with preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal cord.Inferior cerebellar peduncle: The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle (restiform body), a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.Nociceptor: A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.Synapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Serotonergic: Serotonergic (, ) or serotoninergic (, ) means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin". Serotonin is a neurotransmitter.Choline acetyltransferase: Choline acetyltransferase (commonly abbreviated as ChAT, but sometimes CAT) is a transferase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ChAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from the coenzyme, acetyl-CoA, to choline yielding acetylcholine (ACh).Neocortex: The neocortex (Latin for "new bark" or "new [also called the neopallium ("new mantle]") and isocortex ("equal rind"), is a part of the [[mammalian brain. In the human brain, it is the largest part of the cerebral cortex which covers the two cerebral hemispheres, with the allocortex making up the rest.CGP-37849Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex: The Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex (GSWR) is an involuntary, defensive reflex of the sea hare Aplysia californica, a large shell-less sea snail or sea slug. This reflex causes the sea hare's delicate siphon and gill to be retracted when the animal is disturbed.Frontostriatal circuit: Frontostriatal circuits are neural pathways that connect frontal lobe regions with the basal ganglia (striatum) that mediate motor, cognitive, and behavioural functions within the brain. They receive inputs from dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic cell groups that modulate information processing.Medial vestibular nucleus: The medial vestibular nucleus is one of the vestibular nuclei. It is located in the medulla oblongata.HydroxystilbamidineMultielectrode array: Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) or microelectrode arrays are devices that contain multiple plates or shanks through which neural signals are obtained or delivered, essentially serving as neural interfaces that connect neurons to electronic circuitry. There are two general classes of MEAs: implantable MEAs, used in vivo, and non-implantable MEAs, used in vitro.Neurotransmitter: Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as in a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.Serotonergic cell groups: Serotonergic cell groups refer to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Since they are for the most part localized to classical brainstem nuclei, particularly the raphe nuclei, they are more often referred to by the names of those nuclei than by the B1-9 nomenclature.Astrocyte: Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron = star and cyte from Greek "kyttaron" = cell), also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. The proportion of astrocytes in the brain is not well defined.Locus coeruleus: The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus a bluish area of the brain stem with many norepinephrine-containing neurons|url = http://www.merriam-webster.