Nerve fiber layer: The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.Inferior longitudinal fasciculus: The inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects the temporal lobe and occipital lobe, running along the lateral walls of the inferior and posterior cornua of the lateral ventricle.Sciatic nerve: The sciatic nerve (; also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb.Endoneurium: The endoneurium (also called endoneurial channel, endoneurial sheath, endoneurial tube, or Henle's sheath) is a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber. Its component cells are called endoneurial cells.Axon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Optic nerve tumor: An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. These tumors are typically a benign; they can grow, but rarely transform into a malignancy.Compound muscle action potential: The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) or compound motor action potential is an electromyography investigation (electrical study of muscle function).Nerve biopsySacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Remyelination: Remyelination is the process of propagating oligodendrocyte precursor cells to form oligodendrocytes to create new myelin sheaths on demyelinated axons in the CNS. This is a process naturally regulated in the body and tends to be very efficient in a healthy CNS.Neuroregeneration: Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, or synapses.Nociceptor: A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.Esthesiometer: An esthesiometer (British spelling aesthesiometer) is a device for measuring the tactile sensitivity of the skin (or mouth, or eye, etc.).Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Neurotmesis: Neurotmesis (in Greek tmesis signifies "to cut") is part of Seddon's classification scheme used to classify nerve damage. It is the most serious nerve injury in the scheme.Nerve blockComplete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.Mechanosensation: Mechanosensation is a response mechanism to mechanical stimuli. The physiological foundation for the senses of touch, hearing and balance, and pain is the conversion of mechanical stimuli into neuronal signals: mechanosensation.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Ventricular action potentialTrigeminovascular system: The trigeminovascular system consists of neurons in the trigeminal nerve that innervate cerebral blood vessels. It has been hypothesized that the trigeminovascular system may be involved in some types of headaches.DihydrocapsaicinSuperior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).VincristineOptic disc: The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. BecauseUb-AMC: Ubiquitin-AMC is a fluorogenic substrate for a wide range of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), including ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) and ubiquitin specific proteases (USPs). It is a particularly useful reagent for the study of deubiquitinating activity where detection sensitivity or continuous monitoring of activity is essential.Interoceptor: An interoceptor is a sensory receptor that detects stimulus within the body. Examples of stimuli that would be detected by interoceptors include blood pressureCampbell, Neil A.Coherence theory: In physics, coherence theory is the study of optical effects arising from partially coherent light and radio sources. Partially coherent sources are sources where the coherence time or coherence length are limited by bandwidth, by thermal noise, or by other effect.Wallerian degeneration: Wallerian degeneration is a process that results when a nerve fiber is cut or crushed, in which the part of the axon separated from the neuron's cell body degenerates distal to the injury.Trauma and Wallerian Degeneration, University of California, San Francisco This is also known as anterograde or orthograde degeneration.Saltatory conduction: Saltatory conduction (from the Latin saltare, to hop or leap) is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials. The uninsulated nodes of Ranvier are the only places along the axon where ions are exchanged across the axon membrane, regenerating the action potential between regions of the axon that are insulated by myelin, unlike electrical conduction in a simple circuit.Median nerve: The median nerve is a nerve in humans and other animals in the upper limb. It is one of the five main nerves originating from the brachial plexus.Bobby Crush: Bobby Crush (born Robert Nicholas Crush, 23 March 1954) is an English pianist, songwriter, actor and television presenter, originally from Leyton in East London.Dermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.Diabetic neuropathyMartin-Gruber Anastomosis: The Martin-Gruber Anastomosis (or Martin-Gruber Connection) is a communicating nerve branch between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve in the forearm. It is the most common anastomotic anomaly that occurs between these two nerves.Electroneuronography: Electroneuronography or electroneurography (ENoG) is a neurological non-invasive test that was first described by Esslen and Fisch in 1979 and is used to examine the integrity and conductivity of a peripheral nerve. It consists of a brief electrical stimulation of the nerve in one point underneath the skin, and at the same time recording the electrical activity (compound action potentials) at another point of the nerve's trajectory in the body.Autopharmacology: Autopharmacology relates to the scientific study of the regulation of body functions by the activity of its naturally existent (or endogenous) chemical factors of the tissues. A more restricted definition would consider substances that were first identified as external agents which had a documented action on physiological functions, but later were discovered as existing as endogenous factors.Neurofilament: Neurofilaments (NF) are the 10 nanometer or intermediate filaments found in neurons. They are a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and are believed to function primarily to provide structural support for the axon and to regulate axon diameter.Fiber: Fiber or fibre (from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic string used as a component of composite materials, or, when matted into sheets, used to make products such as paper, papyrus, or felt.fiber.Charles D. Phelps: Charles Dexter Phelps (September 16, 1937 – September 13, 1985) was a prominent American medical doctor, professor, and researcher in the field of ophthalmology. The clinical studies he oversaw contributed to significant advances in the scientific understanding and surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.Synaptogenesis: Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system. Although it occurs throughout a healthy person's lifespan, an explosion of synapse formation occurs during early brain development, known as exuberant synaptogenesis.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Triangular interval: The triangular interval (also known as the lateral triangular space,Photo at lower triangular space, and triceps hiatus) is a space found in the axilla.Improved Samba MahsuriChina Cotton Association: China Cotton Association (CCA) is a China non-profit federation in the area of cotton, which is voluntarily established by cotton farmers, cotton farmers' cooperative organizations, enterprises engaged in cotton production, purchase, processing and operation, cotton textile enterprises, cotton research institutes and other organs and which accepts the supervision and management of the Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs and the professional guidance of the All-China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives.Inferior alveolar nerve anaesthesia: Inferior alveolar nerve block (abbreviated to IANB, and also termed inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia or inferior dental block) is a nerve block technique which induces anesthesia (numbness) in the areas of the mouth and face innervated by one of the inferior alveolar nerves which are paired on the left and right side. These areas are the skin and mucous membranes of the lower lip, the skin of the chin, the lower teeth and the labial gingiva of the anterior teeth, all unilaterally to the midline of the side on which the block is administered.Withdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.FormicationCancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Reeler domain: Reeler domain is a protein domain.Branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to carotid sinus: The branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to the carotid sinus (Hering's nerve) is a small nerve in the neck, that innervates the carotid sinus and the carotid body.Diaphragm pacing: == Introduction ==CantharidinCephalic phase: The cephalic phase of gastric secretion occurs even before food enters the stomach, especially while it is being eaten. It results from the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food, and the greater the appetite, the more intense is the stimulation.Lamellar granule: Lamellar granules (otherwise known as membrane-coating granules (MCGs), lamellar bodies, keratinosomes or Odland bodies) are secretory organelles found in type II pneumocytes and keratinocytes. They are oblong structures, appearing about 300-400 nm in width and 100-150 nm in length in transmission electron microscopy images.Cranial nerve examinationVestibulocochlear dysfunction progressive familial: Vestibulocochlear dysfunction progressive familial, known also as familial progressive vestibulocochlear dysfunction is an autosomal dominant disease that results in sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular areflexia. Patients report feelings of vague dissiness, blurred vision, dysequilibrium in the dark, and progressive hearing impairment.Trochlear nerve: The trochlear nerve,, ) come from Ancient Greek also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve] (a [[somatic nervous system|somatic efferent nerve) that innervates only a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which operates through the pulley-like trochlea.Inyoite: BO)(OH)·4(HO)Axoplasmic transport: Axoplasmic transport, also called axonal transport, is a cellular process responsible for movement of mitochondria, lipids, synaptic vesicles, proteins, and other cell parts (i.e.