Neisseria meningitidis: Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gram negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis. The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs.Neisseria subflava: Neisseria subflava is a common inhabitant found in the human upper respiratory tract. It is considered non-pathogenic, although in rare case it can be the causative agent of postoperative meningitis (after a neurological surgery), which is called surgical site infection (SSI).Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.NmVac4-A/C/Y/W-135MenAfriVac: MenAfriVac is a vaccine developed for use in sub-Saharan Africa that protects infants under one year old to people up to 29 years of age against meningococcal bacterium Neisseria meningitidis group A. MenAfriVac costs under US$0.Meningococcal vaccineBacterial outer membraneGonorrhea: Clap}}Outer membrane porin D: Outer membrane porin D is a protein family containing bacterial outer membrane porins which are involved in transport of cationic amino acids, peptides, antibiotics and other compounds.Bacterial capsule: The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaColes PhillipsCSF glucose: (MCnc), (SCnc)Deefgea: Deefgea is a genus in the phylum Proteobacteria (Bacteria).Immunization during pregnancy: Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period.Pilin: Pilin refers to a class of fibrous proteins that are found in pilus structures in bacteria. Bacterial pili are used in the exchange of genetic material during bacterial conjugation, while a shorter type of appendages also made up of pilin, called fimbriae, are used as a cell adhesion mechanism.ATC code J07: ==J07A Bacterial vaccines==Gentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.Antigenic shiftProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.BenzylpenicillinMeningitis Vaccine ProjectHaemophilus meningitisSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Conjugate vaccine: A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier to the attached antigen.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.CD33: CD33 or Siglec-3 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on cells of myeloid lineage. It is usually considered myeloid-specific, but it can also be found on some lymphoid cells.Moraxella bovis: Moraxella bovis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus implicated in infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, an eye disease of cattle,George M. Garrity: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experimentIron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase: UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase (, UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, acyltransferase LpxD, acyl-ACP:UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)-GlcN N-acyltransferase, firA (gene), lpxD (gene)) is an enzyme with system name (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-(acyl-carrier protein):UDP-3-O-((3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionSialic acid: Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone.Galactose epimerase deficiencyDirect agglutination test: A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]BacitracinThermal cyclerBacteremia: (NOS) |Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Extended-spectrum penicillin: The extended-spectrum penicillins are a group of antibiotics that have the widest antibacterial spectrum of all penicillins.Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, Leon Shargel, 6th edition, p917 Some sources identify them with antipseudomonal penicillins,Elsevier's Integrated Review Pharmacology, By Mark Kester, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Kent E.Global microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Terminal complement pathway deficiencySilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.Genetic variation: right|thumbHealth in Niger: Public Health in Niger suffers from a chronic lack of resources and a small number of health providers relative to population. Some medicines are in short supply or unavailable.CeftriaxoneCryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Pseudaminic acid synthase: Pseudaminic acid synthase (, PseI, NeuB3) is an enzyme with system name phosphoenolpyruvate:2,4-bis(acetylamino)-2,4,6-trideoxy-beta-L-altropyranose transferase (phosphate-hydrolysing, 2,7-acetylamino-transferring, 2-carboxy-2-oxoethyl-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionCarbohydrate deficient transferrinSignature-tagged mutagenesis: Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a genetic technique used to study gene function. Recent advances in genome sequencing have allowed us to catalogue a large variety of organisms' genomes, but the function of the genes they contain is still largely unknown.Quellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.Monoclonal antibody therapyRail transport in Burkina Faso: There are 622 kilometres of gauge railway in Burkina Faso which run from Kaya to the border with Côte d'Ivoire. As of June 2014 Sitarail operates a passenger train three times a week along the route from Ouagadougou to Abidjan.