Help Cure Muscular Dystrophy: Help Cure Muscular Dystrophy is a distributed computing project that runs on the BOINC platform. It is a joint effort of the French muscular dystrophy charity, L'Association française contre les myopathies;French Muscular Dystrophy Association and L'Institut de biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (Molecular and Cellular Biology Institute).Exon skipping: In molecular biology, exon skipping is a form of RNA splicing used to cause cells to “skip” over faulty or misaligned sections of genetic code, leading to a truncated but still functional protein despite the genetic mutation.Dystrophin: Dystrophin is a rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein, and a vital part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix through the cell membrane. This complex is variously known as the costamere or the dystrophin-associated protein complex.Myotonic dystrophyDysferlinopathy: Dysferlinopathy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by a deficiency of functional dysferlin protein due to mutations in the dysferlin gene. Dysferlinopathy is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and is most often clinically diagnosed as Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) or Miyoshi muscular dystrophy 1 (MMD1; a type of distal muscular dystrophy), depending on the initial pattern of muscle involvement at diagnosis.Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophyEmerin: Emerin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMD gene, also known as the STA gene. Emerin, together with MAN1, is a LEM domain-containing integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane in vertebrates.Lattice corneal dystrophyDystroglycan: Dystroglycan is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAG1 gene.Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophyUtrophin: Utrophin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UTRN gene.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy: X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy (XECD) is a rare form of corneal dystrophy described first in 2006, based on a 4-generation family of 60 members with 9 affected males and 35 trait carriers, which led to mapping the XECD locus to Xq25. It manifests as severe corneal opacification or clouding, sometimes congenital, in the form of a ground glass, milky corneal tissue, and moon crater-like changes of corneal endothelium.Thymopoietin: Lamina-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP2), isoforms beta/gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMPO gene. LAP2 is an inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein.Bethlem myopathy: Bethlem myopathy is an autosomal dominant myopathy, classified as a congenital form of muscular dystrophy, that is caused by a mutation in one of the three genes coding for type VI collagen. These include COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary -, a part of The New York Times Company.Dystrophin-associated protein: A dystrophin-associated protein is a protein that helps to form the connection between intracellular dystrophin and the extracellular basal lamina.SarcolemmaCreatine kinaseProtein turnover: Protein turnover is the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. More synthesis than breakdown indicates an anabolic state that builds lean tissues, more breakdown than synthesis indicates a catabolic state that burns lean tissues.Methylsterol monooxygenase: Methylsterol monooxygenase (, methylsterol hydroxylase, 4-methylsterol oxidase, 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating)) is an enzyme with system name 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLaminin: Laminins are high-molecular weight (~400kDa) proteins of the extracellular matrix. They are a major component of the basal lamina (one of the layers of the basement membrane), a protein network foundation for most cells and organs.Alternative splicing: Alternative splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Acquired non-inflammatory myopathy: Acquired non-inflammatory myopathy (ANIM) is a neurological disorder primarily affecting skeletal muscle, most commonly in the limbs of humans, resulting in a weakness or dysfunction in the muscle. A myopathy refers to a problem or abnormality with the myofibrils, which compose muscle tissue.Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.Fields' disease: Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history. It is named after Welsh twins Catherine and Kirstie Fields.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of inherited neurological disorders in which iron accumulates in the basal ganglia, resulting in progressive dystonia, Parkinsonism, spasticity, optic atrophy or retinal degeneration and neuropsychiatric abnormalities.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Pikachurin: Pikachurin, also known as AGRINL (AGRINL) and EGF-like, fibronectin type-III and laminin G-like domain-containing protein (EGFLAM), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EGFLAM gene.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Calpain: A:55-354; B:55-354; A:55-354; B:55-354; A:55-353; B:45-344; A:45-344; L:45-344; L:45-344; A:42-337OpsismodysplasiaCousin couple: A cousin couple is a pair of cousins who are involved in a romantic or sexual relationship.Titin: Titin , also known as connectin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TTN gene. Titin is a giant protein, greater than 1 µm in length, that functions as a molecular spring which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle.Regeneration (biology): In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans.PhentolamineMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Diaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.Coles PhillipsChromosome regionsExercise therapy for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: Although they vary in particulars, polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM)primarily characterized by chronic inflammation] of human [[skeletal muscle tissueLundberg I. and Y-L Chung, 2000.Myostatin: Myostatin (also known as growth differentiation factor 8, abbreviated GDF-8) is a myokine, a protein produced and released by myocytes that acts on muscle cells' autocrine function to inhibit myogenesis: muscle cell growth and differentiation. In humans it is encoded by the MSTN gene.Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type: Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type (type 1, IRID1) refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by malformations of the irido-corneal angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Iridogoniodysgenesis is the result of abnormal migration or terminal induction of neural crest cells.Lamin: Nuclear lamins, also known as Class V intermediate filaments, are fibrous proteins providing structural function and transcriptional regulation in the cell nucleus. Nuclear lamins interact with membrane-associated proteins to form the nuclear lamina on the interior of the nuclear envelope.Self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV): Self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) is a viral vector engineered from the naturally occurring adeno-associated virus (AAV) to be used as a tool for gene therapy. Use of recombinant AAV (rAAV) has been successful in clinical trials addressing a variety of diseases.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Missense mutation: In genetics, a missense mutation (a type of nonsynonymous substitution) is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. Another type of nonsynonymous substitution is a nonsense mutation in which a codon is changed to a premature stop codon that results in truncation of the resulting protein.CardiomyopathyReplication slippage: Replication slippage, otherwise known as slipped-strand mispairing, is a form of mutation that leads to either a trinucleotide or dinucleotide expansion or contraction during DNA replication.Hartl L.Glycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.Dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase: Dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase (, ALG12, ALG12 mannosyltransferase, ALG12 alpha1,6mannosyltransferase, dolichyl-P-mannose:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase, dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl alpha6-mannosyltransferase, EBS4, Dol-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-Dol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name dolichyl beta-D-mannosyl phosphate:D-Man-alpha-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-(D-Man-alpha-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-D-Man-alpha-(1->6))-D-Man-beta-(1->4)-D-GlcNAc-beta-(1->4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionBrain biopsyBeta-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase: Beta-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-acetyllactosaminide beta1->3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, poly-N-acetyllactosamine extension enzyme, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPrenatal diagnosis: Prenatal diagnosis or prenatal screening (note that prenatal diagnosis and prenatal screening refer to two different types of tests) is testing for diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. The aim is to detect birth defects such as neural tube defects, Down syndrome, chromosome abnormalities, genetic disorders and other conditions, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Tay Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, Muscular dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Morpholino: A morpholino, also known as a morpholino oligomer and as a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO), is type of oligomer molecule (colloquially, an oligo) used in molecular biology to modify gene expression. The molecular structure has a backbone of methylenemorpholine rings and phosphorodiamidate linkages.National Society of Film Critics Awards 1977: 12th NSFC AwardsThermal cyclerFrameshift mutation: A frameshift mutation (also called a framing error or a reading frame shift) is a genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three. Due to the triplet nature of gene expression by codons, the insertion or deletion can change the reading frame (the grouping of the codons), resulting in a completely different translation from the original.