Bookmarking: Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.Spindle apparatus: In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells that separates chromosomes between daughter cells during cell division. It is also referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.Start point (yeast): The Start checkpoint is a major cell cycle checkpoint in yeast. The Start checkpoint ensures irreversible cell-cycle entry even if conditions later become unfavorable.AnaphaseKinetochore: The kinetochore is the protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart.Microtubule: Microtubules ([+ tube] + [are a component of the [[cytoskeleton], found throughout the [[cytoplasm. These tubular polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic.Immortal DNA strand hypothesis: The immortal DNA strand hypothesis was proposed in 1975 by John Cairns as a mechanism for adult stem cells to minimize mutations in their genomes.Cairns, J.Clb 5,6 (Cdk1): Clb5 and Clb6 are B-type, S-phase cyclins in yeast that assist in cell cycle regulation.Morgan, DO (2007) 'The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control, Oxford University Press Clb5 and Clb6 bind and activate Cdk1, and high levels of these cyclins are required for entering S-phase.Centrosome cycle: Centrosomes are the major microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in mammalian cells. Failure of centrosome regulation can cause mistakes in chromosome segregation and is associated with aneuploidy.Metaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Aurora inhibitorNocodazoleSerine/threonine-specific protein kinaseCytokinesis: Cytokinesis (from the Greek κύτος, "container" and κίνησις, "motion") is the process during cell division in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell is divided to form two daughter cells. It usually initiates during the early stages of mitosis, and sometimes meiosis, splitting a mitotic cell in two, to ensure that chromosome number is maintained from one generation to the next.Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology. It is a unicellular eukaryote, whose cells are rod-shaped.CentromereAPC/C activator protein CDH1: Cdh1 is one of the substrate adaptor protein of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functioning as an activator of the APC/C, Cdh1 regulates the activity and substrate specificity of this ubiquitin E3-ligase.Chromo shadow domain: In molecular biology, the chromo shadow domain is a protein domain which is distantly related to the chromodomain. It is always found in association with a chromodomain.Hyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion: Sister chromatid cohesion refers to the process by which sister chromatids are paired and held together during certain phases of the cell cycle. Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion is the process by which chromatin-associated cohesin protein becomes competent to physically bind together the sister chromatids.MinC: The MinC protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB operon and which is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of the cell. This function is achieved by preventing the formation of the divisome Z-ring around the poles.Tubulin: Tubulin ([+ -in]) in [[molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily. α- and β-tubulins polymerize into microtubules, a major component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton.KASH domains: KASH domains are conserved C-terminal protein regions less than ~30 amino acids. KASH is an acronym for Klarsicht, ANC-1, Syne Homology.KinesinTotal internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.Coles PhillipsSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Pericentriolar material: Pericentriolar material (PCM, sometimes also called pericentriolar matrix) is an amorphous mass of protein which makes up the part of the animal centrosome that surrounds the two centrioles. The PCM contains proteins responsible for microtubule nucleation and anchoring including γ-tubulin, pericentrin and ninein.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.DNA re-replication: DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. Rereplication is believed to lead to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathologies of a variety of human cancers.Kinome: In molecular biology, the kinome of an organism is the set of protein kinases in its genome. Kinases are enzymes that catalyze phosphorylation reactions (of amino acids) and fall into several groups and families, e.RNAi-Based Identification System and interference of Specific Cancer Cells: A “classifier” was created to classify cells by identifying specific characteristics of Cervical Cancer. These characteristics were consistent with HeLa cells, which served as the target cell line for cell death.Bivalent chromatin: Bivalent chromatin are segments of DNA, bound to histone proteins, that have both repressing and activating epigenetic regulators in the same region. These regulators work to enhance or silence the expression of genes.BESS domain: In molecular biology, the BESS domain is a protein domain which has been named after the three proteins that originally defined the domain: BEAF (Boundary element associated factor 32), Suvar(3)7 and Stonewall ). The BESS domain is 40 amino acid residues long and is predicted to be composed of three alpha helices, as such it might be related to the myb/SANT HTH domain.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Nucleolus: The nucleolus (; plural nucleoli ) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly. Nucleoli also have other important functions like assembly of signal recognition particles and playing a role in the cell's response to stress.DemecolcineCyclin: Cyclins are a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes.NEK8: Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek8, also known as never in mitosis A-related kinase 8, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEK8 gene.Histone octamer: A histone octamer is the eight protein complex found at the center of a nucleosome core particle. It consists of two copies of each of the four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4).Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==PaleopolyploidyLamin: Nuclear lamins, also known as Class V intermediate filaments, are fibrous proteins providing structural function and transcriptional regulation in the cell nucleus. Nuclear lamins interact with membrane-associated proteins to form the nuclear lamina on the interior of the nuclear envelope.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Synapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Protein serine/threonine phosphatase: Protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PSP) is a form of phosphoprotein phosphatase that acts upon serine/threonine residues.DNA-binding proteinCyclin-dependent kinase complex: A cyclin-dependent kinase complex (CDKC, cyclin-CDK) is a protein complex formed by the association of an inactive catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin.Malumbres M, Barbacid M.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Janin PlotRibosomal DNACondensin: Condensins are large protein complexes that play a central role in chromosome assembly and segregation during mitosis and meiosis.
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