Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Mitochondrial membrane transport protein: Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are proteins which exist in the membranes of mitochondria and which serve to transport molecules and other factors such as ions into or out of the organelles.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Oxidative phosphorylation: Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) is the metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP. Although the many forms of life on earth use a range of different nutrients, ATP is the molecule that supplies energy to metabolism.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale: The International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) is an outcome measure that was created in 1997 by the Committee of the World Federation of Neurology with the goal of standardizing the quantification of impairment due to cerebellar ataxia. The scale is scored out of 100 with 19 items and 4 subscales of postural and gait disturbances, limb ataxia, dysarthria, and oculomotor disorders.P/O ratio: The Phosphate/Oxygen Ratio, or P/O Ratio, refers to the amount of ATP produced from the movement of two electrons through a defined electron transport chain, donated by reduction of an oxygen atom.Garrett & Grisham 2010, p.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Coles PhillipsChloramphenicol acetyltransferaseMitochondrial diseaseProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.Biot's respiration: Biot's respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Mitochondrial carrier: A:9-104 A:112-206 A:112-206CrassaPlant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer: Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAK1 gene on chromosome 6. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.Two-dimensional gel electrophoresisElectron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.NADH dehydrogenase: NADH dehydrogenase (, cytochrome c reductase, type 1 dehydrogenase, beta-NADH dehydrogenase dinucleotide, diaphorase, dihydrocodehydrogenase I dehydrogenase, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase, diphosphopyridine diaphorase, DPNH diaphorase, NADH diaphorase, NADH hydrogenase, NADH oxidoreductase, NADH-menadione oxidoreductase, reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide diaphorase) is an enzyme with systematic name NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionCitrate synthase family: In molecular biology, the citrate synthase family of proteins includes the enzymes citrate synthase , and the related enzymes 2-methylcitrate synthase and ATP citrate synthase .Bradford LeslieSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Mediated transportGating signal: A gating signal is a digital signal or pulse (sometimes called a "trigger") that provides a time window so that a particular event or signal from among many will be selected and others will be eliminated or discarded.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.HSP60Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.NADH-QTable of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.KIAA0895L: Uncharacterized protein KIAA0895-like also known as LOC653319, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0895L gene.Succinate dehydrogenase subunit E: In molecular biology, the protein domain named Sdh5 is also named SdhE which stands for succinate dehydrogenase protein E. In the past, it has also been named YgfY and DUF339.N-succinylornithine carbamoyltransferase: N-succinylornithine carbamoyltransferase (, succinylornithine transcarbamylase, N-succinyl-L-ornithine transcarbamylase, SOTCase) is an enzyme with system name carbamoyl phosphate:N2-succinyl-L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionEthidium homodimer assay: An ethidium homodimer assay can be used to detect dead or dying cells. Ethidium homodimer is a membrane-impermeable fluorescent dye which binds to DNA.Cytochrome C1: Cytochrome C1 is formed in the cytosol and targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. It is one of the constituents of complex III, which forms the third proton pump in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.Mitochondrial ROS: Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS or mROS) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced by mitochondria. Generation of mitochondrial ROS mainly takes place at the electron transport chain located on the inner mitochondrial membrane during the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).CS-BLASTOxytetracyclineCarbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazoneIndex of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.CycloheximideHeat shock protein: Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions. They were first described in relation to heat shock, but are now known to also be expressed during other stresses including exposure to cold, UV light, and during wound healing or tissue remodeling..Chaperone (protein): 250px|right|thumb|A top-view of the [[GroES/GroEL bacterial chaperone complex model]]Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.AAA proteins: For other uses see AAA (disambiguation)YjdF RNA motifIron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis protein family: In molecular biology, the iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis protein family of includes proteins involved in biogenesis of Fe-S clusters (iron-sulfur cluster insertion protein, Fe/S biogenesis protein). This family includes IscA, HesB, YadR and YfhF-like proteins.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Protein synthesis inhibitor: A protein synthesis inhibitor is a substance that stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins.Dihydrofolate reductase