Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.P/O ratio: The Phosphate/Oxygen Ratio, or P/O Ratio, refers to the amount of ATP produced from the movement of two electrons through a defined electron transport chain, donated by reduction of an oxygen atom.Garrett & Grisham 2010, p.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Biot's respiration: Biot's respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Mitochondrial membrane transport protein: Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are proteins which exist in the membranes of mitochondria and which serve to transport molecules and other factors such as ions into or out of the organelles.Oxidative phosphorylation: Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) is the metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP. Although the many forms of life on earth use a range of different nutrients, ATP is the molecule that supplies energy to metabolism.Malate-aspartate shuttle: The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. These electrons enter the electron transport chain of the mitochondria via reduction equivalents to generate ATP.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Mitochondrial ROS: Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS or mROS) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced by mitochondria. Generation of mitochondrial ROS mainly takes place at the electron transport chain located on the inner mitochondrial membrane during the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).Cytochrome C1: Cytochrome C1 is formed in the cytosol and targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. It is one of the constituents of complex III, which forms the third proton pump in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.RotenoneCarbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazoneTable of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Electron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Mitochondrial carrier: A:9-104 A:112-206 A:112-206Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazoneZuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.SarpogrelateMediated transportBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Bcl-2 familyColes PhillipsReversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Caspase 12: Caspase 12 is a protein that belongs to a family of enzymes called caspases which cleave their substrates at C-terminal aspartic acid residues. It is closely related to caspase 1 and other members of the caspase family, known as inflammatory caspases, which process and activate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 and interleukin 18.Cell fractionation: Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets from a larger population of cells.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer: Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAK1 gene on chromosome 6. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Mitochondrial diseaseMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductaseNADH:ubiquinone reductase (non-electrogenic): NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non-electrogenic) (, ubiquinone reductase, coenzyme Q reductase, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coenzyme Q reductase, DPNH-coenzyme Q reductase, DPNH-ubiquinone reductase, NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, NADH-coenzyme Q reductase, NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, NADH-CoQ reductase) is an enzyme with system name NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionNADH dehydrogenase: NADH dehydrogenase (, cytochrome c reductase, type 1 dehydrogenase, beta-NADH dehydrogenase dinucleotide, diaphorase, dihydrocodehydrogenase I dehydrogenase, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase, diphosphopyridine diaphorase, DPNH diaphorase, NADH diaphorase, NADH hydrogenase, NADH oxidoreductase, NADH-menadione oxidoreductase, reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide diaphorase) is an enzyme with systematic name NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAcetonedicarboxylic acidSuccinate dehydrogenase subunit E: In molecular biology, the protein domain named Sdh5 is also named SdhE which stands for succinate dehydrogenase protein E. In the past, it has also been named YgfY and DUF339.Malonic acidEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Beta Cells: Beta cells are heavily engaged in the synthesis and secretion of insulin. They are therefore particularly sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response(UPR).Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Vaporized hydrogen peroxide: Vaporized hydrogen peroxide — also known as hydrogen peroxide vapor, HPV, and by the trademarked name VHP — is a vapor form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with applications as a low-temperature antimicrobial vapor used to decontaminate enclosed and sealed areas such as laboratory workstations, isolation and pass-through rooms, and even aircraft interiors.Systemic primary carnitine deficiencyMitochondrial fission: Although commonly depicted as bean-like structures mitochondria form a highly dynamic network within most cells where they constantly undergo fission and fusion. Mitochondria can divide by prokaryotic binary fission and since they require mitochondrial DNA for their function, fission is coordinated with DNA replication.Bradford LeslieBH3 interacting-domain death agonist: The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist, or BID, gene is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. Bcl-2 family members share one or more of the four characteristic domains of homology entitled the Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains (named BH1, BH2, BH3 and BH4), and can form hetero- or homodimers.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GICrassaSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Dropping mercury electrode: The dropping mercury electrode (DME) is a working electrode made of mercury and used in polarography. Experiments run with mercury electrodes are referred to as forms of polarography even if the experiments are identical or very similar to a corresponding voltammetry experiment which uses solid working electrodes.Organelle biogenesis: Organelle biogenesis is the biogenesis, or creation, of cellular organelles in cells. Organelle biogenesis includes the process by which cellular organelles are split between daughter cells during mitosis; this process is called organelle inheritance.Citrate synthase family: In molecular biology, the citrate synthase family of proteins includes the enzymes citrate synthase , and the related enzymes 2-methylcitrate synthase and ATP citrate synthase .Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.ValinomycinApoptosis-inducing factorBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.DigitoninProtoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.Lamellar granule: Lamellar granules (otherwise known as membrane-coating granules (MCGs), lamellar bodies, keratinosomes or Odland bodies) are secretory organelles found in type II pneumocytes and keratinocytes. They are oblong structures, appearing about 300-400 nm in width and 100-150 nm in length in transmission electron microscopy images.