AutofluorescenceSpectrofluorometer: A spectrofluorometer is an instrument which takes advantage of fluorescent properties of some compounds in order to provide information regarding their concentration and chemical environment in a sample. A certain excitation wavelength is selected, and the emission is observed either at a single wavelength, or a scan is performed to record the intensity versus wavelength, also called an emission spectra.Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.TSOM: Through-Focus Scanning Optical Microscopy (TSOM) is an imaging method that produces nanometer-scale three-dimensional measurement sensitivity using a conventional bright-field optical microscope. TSOM has been introduced and maintained by Ravikiran Attotahttp://www.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Field emission probesMauna Kea Technologies: Mauna Kea Technologies is a global medical device company focused on leading innovation in endomicroscopy, the field of microscopic imaging during endoscopy procedures. The company researches, develops and markets tools to visualize, detect and rule out abnormalities including malignant and pre-malignant tumors or lesions in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary tracts.Fluorescent tag: In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. Generally, fluorescent tagging, or labeling, uses a reactive derivative of a fluorescent molecule known as a fluorophore.Single-molecule FRET: Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (or smFRET) is a biophysical technique used to measure distances at the 1-10 nanometer scale in single molecules, typically biomolecules. It is an application of FRET wherein a single donor and acceptor FRET pairs are excited and detected.Multiphoton fluorescence microscope: A multiphoton fluorescence microscope (MFM) is a specialized optical microscope.Nanosensors (company)Lamellar granule: Lamellar granules (otherwise known as membrane-coating granules (MCGs), lamellar bodies, keratinosomes or Odland bodies) are secretory organelles found in type II pneumocytes and keratinocytes. They are oblong structures, appearing about 300-400 nm in width and 100-150 nm in length in transmission electron microscopy images.Immunostaining: Immunostaining is a general term in biochemistry that applies to any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample. The term immunostaining was originally used to refer to the immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections, as first described by Albert Coons in 1941.Fluorescence recovery after photobleachingSynapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Citrine (colour): Citrine is a colour], the most common reference for which is certain coloured varieties of [[quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as yellow, greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange.Electron beam-induced deposition: Electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a process of decomposing gaseous molecules by electron beam leading to deposition of non-volatile fragments onto a nearby substrate. The electron beam is usually provided by a scanning electron microscope that results in high spatial accuracy (below one nanometer) and possibility to produce free-standing, three-dimensional structures.RhodamineBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Silicene: Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon, with a hexagonal honeycomb structure similar to that of graphene.Nanovid microscopy: Nanovid microscopy, from “nanometer video-enhanced microscopy”, is a microscopic technique aimed at visualizing colloidal gold particles of 20-40 nm diameter (nanogold, immunogold) as dynamic markers at the light microscopic level. The nanogold particles as such are smaller than the diffraction limit of light, but can be visualized by using Video-Enhanced Differential Interference Contrast (VEDIC).Tryptophan operon leaderFluorescein diacetate hydrolysis: Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis assays can be used to measure enzyme activity produced by microbes in a sample. A bright yellow glow is produced and is strongest when enzymatic activity is greatest.Heptamethine dyesVital stain: A vital stain in a casual usage may mean a stain that can be applied on living cells without killing them. Vital stains have been useful for diagnostic and surgical techniques in a variety of medical specialties.Cell membraneLive cell imaging: __NOTOC__Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Fluorescence loss in photobleaching: Fluorescence Loss in Photobleaching (FLIP) is a fluorescence microscopy technique used to examine movement of molecules inside cells and membranes. A cell membrane is typically labeled with a fluorescent dye to allow for observation.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingFilter fluorometer: A filter fluorometer is a type of fluorometer that may be employed in fluorescence spectroscopy.Coles PhillipsLaser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples.Scanning probe microscopy: Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. SPM was founded in 1981, with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.FluoresceinAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.X-ray magnetic circular dichroismMass diffusivity: Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration of the species (or the driving force for diffusion). Diffusivity is encountered in Fick's law and numerous other equations of physical chemistry.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Reaction coordinateMICAD: == Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database ==DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Grow lightOutline of biophysics: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics:New Zealand rabbitLiposomeFlow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Red chlorophyll catabolite reductase: In molecular biology, the red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) family of proteins consists of several red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) proteins. Red chlorophyll catabolite (RCC) reductase (RCCR) and pheophorbide (Pheide) a oxygenase (PaO) catalyse the key reaction of chlorophyll catabolism, porphyrin macrocycle cleavage of Pheide a to a primary fluorescent catabolite (pFCC).Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample.Actin remodeling of neurons: Actin remodeling is a biochemical process in cells. In the actin remodeling of neurons, the protein actin is part of the process to change the shape and structure of dendritic spines.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Surface modification: Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material.Protoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==AcrylamideList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.SulfonylFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Model lipid bilayer: A model lipid bilayer is any bilayer assembled in vitro, as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus. A model bilayer can be made with either synthetic or natural lipids.Atomic force acoustic microscopy: Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy (AFAM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). It is a combination of acoustics and atomic force microscopy.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.History of nanotechnology: The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.Glossmeter: A glossmeter (also gloss meter) is an instrument which is used to measure specular reflection gloss of a surface. Gloss is determined by projecting a beam of light at a fixed intensity and angle onto a surface and measuring the amount of reflected light at an equal but opposite angle.Volume rendering: 250px|thumb| A volume rendered cadaver head using view-aligned [[texture mapping and diffuse reflection]]Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.IAEDANSFluorescent glucose biosensor: Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose. No device has yet entered the medical market,No fluorescent biosensor has yet entered the medical market, however, in the market for research tools several fluorescent biosensors are present, such as a kit using [Vibrio fischeri] but, due to the prevalence of diabetes, it is the prime drive in the construction of fluorescent biosensors.X-ray scattering techniquesSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.