Metals in medicine: Metals in medicine are used in organic systems for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Inorganic elements are also essential for organic life as cofactors in enzymes called Metalloproteins.Zinc toxicityAlkali metal oxide: The alkali metals react with oxygen to form several different compounds: suboxides, oxides, peroxides, superoxides, and ozonides. They all react violently with water.Cobalt(II) hydroxideCopper toxicityNickel electroplating: Nickel electroplating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of nickel onto a metal object. The nickel layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, wear resistance, or used to build up worn or undersized parts for salvage purposes.Alkali: In chemistry, an alkali (; from Arabic: al-qaly القلي, القالي , “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element. An alkali also can be defined as a base that dissolves in water.Manganese deficiency (plant): Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a plant disorder that is often confused with, and occurs with, iron deficiency. Most common in poorly drained soils, also where organic matter levels are high.Chromium: Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6.Iron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is the main vehicle for publishing public health information and recommendations that have been received by the CDC from state health departments.Mercury(II) reductase: Mercury(II) reductase (), commonly known as MerA, is an oxidoreductase enzyme and flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0. Mercury(II) reductase is found in the cytoplasm of many eubacteria in both aerobic and anaerobic environments and the serves the purpose of converting toxic mercury ions into its relatively inert elemental form.PyromorphiteMountain Pass rare earth mine: The Mountain Pass rare earth mine is an open-pit mine of rare earth elements (REEs) on the south flank of the Clark Mountain Range, just north of the unincorporated community of Mountain Pass, California, United States. The mine, owned by Molycorp Inc.Coordination complex: In chemistry, a coordination complex or metal complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. Many metal-containing compounds, especially those of transition metals, are coordination complexes.Thread-locking fluid: Thread-locking fluid or threadlocker is a thin, single-component adhesive, applied to the threads of fasteners such as screws and bolts to prevent loosening, leakage, and corrosion.Magnesium acetateDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Atomic absorption spectroscopy: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.Light Metal Age (magazine): Light Metal Age is a technical trade magazine exclusively devoted to primary production and semi-fabrication of light metals, specifically aluminum, titanium, magnesium, beryllium, and their alloys. However, the main editorial emphasis is aluminum.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Brightray: Brightray is a nickel-chromium alloy that is noted for its resistance to erosion by gas flow at high temperatures. It was used for hard-facing the exhaust valve heads and seats of petrol engines, particularly aircraft engines from the 1930s onwards.Reaction coordinateGas metal arc weldingSpinel group: The spinels are any of a class of minerals of general formulation A2+B3+2O2−4 which crystallise in the cubic (isometric) crystal system, with the oxide anions arranged in a cubic close-packed lattice and the cations A and B occupying some or all of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the lattice. Although the charges of A and B in the prototypical spinel structure are +2 and +3, respectively, other combinations incorporating divalent, trivalent, or tetravalent cations, including magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, titanium, and silicon, are also possible.Coles PhillipsMetallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.Trace metal: Trace metals are metals that can be present in animal and plant cells and tissue and are a necessary part of nutrition and physiology. Ingestion of, or exposure to, excessive quantities can be toxic.Acid catalysis: In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base. The acid is the proton donor and the base is the proton acceptor.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acidAluminium toxicity in dialysis patients: Aluminium toxicity is a problem for patients on haemodialysis. The dialysis process does not efficiently remove excess aluminium from the body, so it may build up over time.Surgical stainless steel: Surgical stainless steel is an informal term which refers to certain grades of stainless steel that are used in biomedical applications. The most common "surgical steels" are austenitic 316 stainless and martensitic 440 and 420 stainless steels.Arsenic biochemistry: Arsenic biochemistry refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate. Arsenic is a moderately abundant element in Earth's crust, and although many arsenic compounds are often considered highly toxic, a wide variety of organoarsenic compounds are produced biologically and various organic and inorganic arsenic compounds are metabolized by numerous organisms.Titanium nitrideMagnetic shape-memory alloy: Magnetic shape-memory alloys (MSMAs), or ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs), are ferromagnetic materials which exhibit large strains under the influence of an applied magnetic field due to martensitic phase transformation. Magnetic shape-memory alloys, with near-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa being the most studied example, differ from other magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D and Galfenol, as they produce much larger strains by twinning, sometimes as large as 9%, under relatively low bias magnetic fields.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Metallocene: A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (Cp, which is C5H5−) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M. Closely related to the metallocenes are the metallocene derivatives, e.Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample.Aluminium gallium arsenide: Aluminium gallium arsenide (also aluminum gallium arsenide) (AlxGa1-xAs) is a semiconductor material with very nearly the same lattice constant as GaAs, but a larger bandgap. The x in the formula above is a number between 0 and 1 - this indicates an arbitrary alloy between GaAs and AlAs.Phase problem: In physics the phase problem is the name given to the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement. The name itself comes from the field of x-ray crystallography, where the phase problem has to be solved for the determination of a structure from diffraction data.Depletion gilding: Depletion gilding is a method for producing a layer of nearly pure gold on an object made of gold alloy by removing the other metals from its surface. It is sometimes referred to as a "surface enrichment" process.Tetrasodium tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)ruthenium(II)Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Palladium(II) chlorideIndustrial waste: Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. It has existed since the start of the Industrial Revolution.BrittlenessAldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase: In enzymology, an aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase () is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionDatabase of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Zero field splitting: Zero field splitting describes various interactions of the energy levels of an electron spin (S>1/2) even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. It is important in the electron spin resonance of biological molecules.HistidineSpecificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Vanadium redox battery: The vanadium redox (and redox flow) battery (VRB) is a type of rechargeable flow battery that employs vanadium ions in different oxidation states to store chemical potential energy. The vanadium redox battery exploits the ability of vanadium to exist in solution in four different oxidation states, and uses this property to make a battery that has just one electroactive element instead of two.Zinc chloride hydroxide monohydrateManganese(II) sulfateFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Uranium mining debateYunnan Tin: Yunnan Tin Group (Holding) Company Limited (YTC) is the largest tin producer and exporter in China and the world. It is headquartered in Kunming, Yunnan.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Corrosion: Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more stable form, such as its oxide or hydroxide. It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical reaction with their environment.Polyvalent DNA gold nanoparticles: Polyvalent DNA gold nanoparticles are colloidal gold whose surface is modified with thiol capped synthetic DNA sequences. They were co-discovered by Chad Mirkin et al.Trioxide: A trioxide is a compound with three oxygen atoms. For metals with the M2O3 formula there are several common structures.Steelmaking: Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap. In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon are removed from the raw iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel.FerroceneLanthanide: The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elementsThe current IUPAC recommendation is that the name lanthanoid be used rather than lanthanide, as the suffix "-ide" is preferred for negative ions, whereas the suffix "-oid" indicates similarity to one of the members of the containing family of elements. However, lanthanide is still favored in most (~90%) scientific articles and is currently adopted on Wikipedia.Oedipoda caerulescens: The blue-winged grasshopper, Oedipoda caerulescens is a grasshopper in the genus Oedipoda.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Hairpin ribozymeMolybdenum: Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek , meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores.Platinum nanoparticles: Platinum nanoparticles are usually in the form of a suspension or colloidConductive Polymer / Solvent Systems: Solutions or Dispersions?, Bernhard Wessling, 1996 of submicrometre-size particles of platinum in a fluid, usually water.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Sodium ferric gluconate complexBeryllium poisoningYtterbium(III) oxideStillwater Mining Company: Stillwater Mining Company () is a palladium and platinum mining company with headquarters located at Billings, Montana, United States. It is the only palladium and platinum producer in the USA.Organic semiconductor: An organic semiconductor is an organic material with semiconductor properties, that is, with an electrical conductivity between that of insulators and that of metals. Single molecules, oligomers, and organic polymers can be semiconductive.Rhodium(III) chlorideCis-Dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride