Menstruation (mammal): Menstruation in mammals is the shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium). It occurs on a regular basis in sexually reproductive-age females of certain mammal species.Start point (yeast): The Start checkpoint is a major cell cycle checkpoint in yeast. The Start checkpoint ensures irreversible cell-cycle entry even if conditions later become unfavorable.Endometrium: The endometrium is the inner mucous membrane of the mammalian uterus.Mercian Way: The Mercian Way is a long cycle path that runs from Salisbury in Wiltshire to Chester in Cheshire. Operated by Sustrans, it is part of National Cycle Route 45, but is also well used by walkers.Premenstrual water retention: Premenstrual water retention (or premenstrual fluid retention) is a common phenomenon associated with the menstrual cycle. It consists of the retention of water during the period of time immediately preceding the menstrual cycle (that is, the latter half of the luteal phase, or the week before menstruation).Estradiol cypionate: Estradiol cypionate (INN, USAN) (brand names Depo-Estradiol, Depofemin, Estradep, and many others), or estradiol cipionate, is a synthetic ester, specifically the 3-cyclopentylpropanoyl ester, of the natural estrogen, estradiol. It was first introduced in 1952 by Upjohn in the United States, and has been in widespread use since.PregnanediolDysmenorrheaOral contraceptive pill: Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.Gonadotropin-resistant ovary syndrome: Resistant ovary syndrome, previously known as Savage Syndrome, is a cause of ovarian failure that can lead to secondary amenorrhea. "Resistant ovaries" result from a functional disturbance of the gonadotrophin receptors in the ovarian follicles.Cervical cap: The cervical cap is a form of barrier contraception. A cervical cap fits over the cervix and blocks sperm from entering the uterus through the external orifice of the uterus, called the os.Menstrual cup: A menstrual cup is type of feminine hygiene product which is usually made of medical grade silicone, shaped like a bell and is flexible. It is worn inside the vagina during menstruation to catch menstrual fluid (blood).Congenital estrogen deficiency: Congenital estrogen deficiency is a genetic condition by which the body is unable to produce or use estrogens.AnovulationEstrous cycle: The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; derived from Latin oestrus and originally from Greek οἶστρος meaning sexual desire) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females. Estrous cycles start after sexual maturity in females and are interrupted by anestrous phases or pregnancies.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.OligomenorrheaUnexplained infertility: Unexplained infertility is infertility that is idiopathic in the sense that its cause remains unknown even after an infertility work-up, usually including semen analysis in the man and assessment of ovulation and fallopian tubes in the woman.merckmanuals > Unexplained Infertility Last full review/revision November 2008 by Robert W.EndometriosisEstroneCorpus luteum cystFertility testingHormone: A hormone (from Greek , "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins).Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingFallopian tube obstructionUterus transplantation: The uterine transplant is the surgical procedure whereby a healthy uterus is transplanted into a female organism of which the uterus is absent or diseased. As part of normal mammalian sexual reproduction, a diseased or absent uterus does not allow normal embryonic implantation, effectively rendering the female infertile.Ovarian follicle: Ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries. It also secretes hormones that influence stages of the menstrual cycle.Low Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Vaginal septumLevonorgestrelDecidual reaction: The decidual reaction is the changes in the endometrium of the uterus that prepare it for implantation of an embryo. These changes are observed in each menstrual cycle and enhanced after implantation.North American Menopause SocietyInfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance in women that is thought to be one of the leading causes of female infertility.Palacio JR et,al.Isodemis: Isodemis is a genus of moths belonging to the subfamily Tortricinae of the family Tortricidae.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue: A gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue or analog), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRH agonist) or LHRH analogue is a synthetic peptide drug modeled after the human hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). A GnRH analogue is designed to interact with the GnRH receptor and modify the release of pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH for therapeutic purposes.Reverse Krebs cycle: The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle)MenorrhagiaEquine chorionic gonadotropin: Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares. Most commonly called pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in the past, the hormone is commonly used in concert with progestogen to induce ovulation in livestock prior to artificial insemination.Saliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).Cervical mucus plug: A cervical mucus plug (operculum) is a plug that fills and seals the cervical canal during pregnancy. It is formed by a small amount of cervical mucus.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Plasmodium osmaniae: Plasmodium osmaniae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia.Contraceptive implant: A contraceptive implant is a type of birth control. It is a small flexible tube measuring about 40mm in length which is inserted under the skin (typically in the upper arm) by a health care professional.Myometrium: The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue. Its main function is to induce uterine contractions.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Stromal cell: Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, and the ovary. They are cells that support the function of the parenchymal cells of that organ.Ovarian diseaseNorethisterone acetateMestranolCycleBeads: CycleBeads is a visual tool that was developed by the Institute for Reproductive Health at Georgetown University. This device helps women use the Standard Days Method, a fertility awareness-based family planning method.Pueraria: Pueraria is a genus of 15–20 species of plants native to Asia. Pueraria flower is used in traditional Chinese medicine to reduce reactions to alcohol consumption, and is undergoing scientific study for that use.Prenatal testosterone transfer: Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development. This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology, though some studies have found that testosterone transfer can cause an exaggerated masculinization in males.AndrostenedioneMenopause