Spermatocyte: Spermatocytes are a type of male gametocyte in animals. They derive from immature germ cells called spermatogonia.Ascospore: An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. This kind of spore is specific to fungi classified as ascomycetes (Ascomycota).Immortal DNA strand hypothesis: The immortal DNA strand hypothesis was proposed in 1975 by John Cairns as a mechanism for adult stem cells to minimize mutations in their genomes.Cairns, J.Synaptonemal complex: right|300px|thumb|A Homologous chromosomes (light blue) align and synapse together via transverse filaments (black lines) and longitudinal filaments (dark blue). Recombination nodules (gray ellipsoids) on the central region may help in completing recombination.Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Prophase: Prophase (from the Greek πρό, "before" and φάσις, "stage"), is a stage of mitosis in which the chromatin condenses into double rod-shaped structures called chromosomes in which the chromatin becomes visible. This process, called chromatin condensation, is involved with the condensin complex.Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion: Sister chromatid cohesion refers to the process by which sister chromatids are paired and held together during certain phases of the cell cycle. Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion is the process by which chromatin-associated cohesin protein becomes competent to physically bind together the sister chromatids.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.CentromerePremature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Bookmarking: Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.Metaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology. It is a unicellular eukaryote, whose cells are rod-shaped.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Spindle apparatus: In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells that separates chromosomes between daughter cells during cell division. It is also referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.Blood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.AnaphaseChromo shadow domain: In molecular biology, the chromo shadow domain is a protein domain which is distantly related to the chromodomain. It is always found in association with a chromodomain.Kinetochore: The kinetochore is the protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart.Clb 5,6 (Cdk1): Clb5 and Clb6 are B-type, S-phase cyclins in yeast that assist in cell cycle regulation.Morgan, DO (2007) 'The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control, Oxford University Press Clb5 and Clb6 bind and activate Cdk1, and high levels of these cyclins are required for entering S-phase.Pisaster ochraceusSpermatid: The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes. As a result of meiosis, each spermatid contains only half of the genetic material present in the original primary spermatocyte.Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.History of research on Caenorhabditis elegans: The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans was first studied in the laboratory by Victor Nigon and Ellsworth Dougherty in the 1940s, but came to prominence after being adopted by Sydney Brenner in 1963 as a model organism for the study of developmental biology using genetics. In 1974, Brenner published the results of his first genetic screen, which isolated hundreds of mutants with morphological phenotypes.Coles PhillipsCoprinopsis atramentaria: Coprinopsis atramentaria, commonly known as the common ink cap or inky cap, is an edible (but sometimes poisonous, see below) mushroom found in Europe and North America. Previously known as Coprinus atramentarius, it is the second best known ink cap and previous member of the genus Coprinus after C.Maturation promoting factor: Maturation-promoting factor (abbreviated MPF, also called mitosis-promoting factor or M-Phase-promoting factor) is the cyclin-Cdk complex that was discovered first in frog eggs. It stimulates the mitotic and meiotic phases of the cell cycle.Sarah R, Lotfi: Sarah R. Lotfi (b.PollenMicrotubule: Microtubules ([+ tube] + [are a component of the [[cytoskeleton], found throughout the [[cytoplasm. These tubular polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic.Sister (Sister2Sister song)Serine/threonine-specific protein kinasePhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Telescoping generations: Telescoping generations can occur in parthenogenetic species, such as aphids or other life forms that have the ability to reproduce without ovum fertilization. This occurrence is characterized by a viviparous female having a daughter growing inside her that is also parthenogenetically pregnant with a daughter cell.DNA-binding proteinExcinuclease: Excision endonuclease, also known as excinuclease or UV-Specific Endonuclease, is a nuclease (enzyme) which excises a fragment of nucleotides during DNA repair. The excinuclease cuts out a fragment by hydrolyzing two phosphodiester bonds, one on either side of the lesion in the DNA.Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.APC/C activator protein CDH1: Cdh1 is one of the substrate adaptor protein of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functioning as an activator of the APC/C, Cdh1 regulates the activity and substrate specificity of this ubiquitin E3-ligase.Chromosome regionsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Aurora inhibitorCytoplasmic male sterility: Cytoplasmic male sterility is total or partial male sterility in plants as the result of specific nuclear and mitochondrial interactions. Male sterility is the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes.Base excision repair: frame|right|Basic steps of base excision repair|Basic steps of base excision repairBESS domain: In molecular biology, the BESS domain is a protein domain which has been named after the three proteins that originally defined the domain: BEAF (Boundary element associated factor 32), Suvar(3)7 and Stonewall ). The BESS domain is 40 amino acid residues long and is predicted to be composed of three alpha helices, as such it might be related to the myb/SANT HTH domain.Histone octamer: A histone octamer is the eight protein complex found at the center of a nucleosome core particle. It consists of two copies of each of the four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4).