Malate-aspartate shuttle: The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. These electrons enter the electron transport chain of the mitochondria via reduction equivalents to generate ATP.Dioxosuccinic acidReverse Krebs cycle: The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle)Glyoxylic acidTrisodium citrateIron(II) fumarateAcetonedicarboxylic acidSarpogrelateIsocitrate lyase family: A:9-427 C:9-427 D:9-427Dodecanedioic acidFumarate lyase: A:13-309 A:8-300 A:90-301Citrate synthase family: In molecular biology, the citrate synthase family of proteins includes the enzymes citrate synthase , and the related enzymes 2-methylcitrate synthase and ATP citrate synthase .Malonic acidButyl acetate (disambiguation): Butyl acetate most often refers to n-butyl acetate. However, there are other isomers that may be considered to be butyl acetates:Sodium pyruvateIsocitric acidMitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Pyruvate carboxylaseAluminium toxicity in dialysis patients: Aluminium toxicity is a problem for patients on haemodialysis. The dialysis process does not efficiently remove excess aluminium from the body, so it may build up over time.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus: Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus, or LDV for short, belongs to part of the arteriviridae family and the nidovirales order. Also included in the nidovirales order are the coronaviridae.Succinate dehydrogenase subunit E: In molecular biology, the protein domain named Sdh5 is also named SdhE which stands for succinate dehydrogenase protein E. In the past, it has also been named YgfY and DUF339.SucA RNA motifYamaguchi esterification: The Yamaguchi esterification is the chemical reaction of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (TCBC, Yamaguchi reagent) to form a mixed anhydride which, upon reaction with an alcohol in the presence of stoichiometric amount of DMAP, produces the desired ester. It was first reported by Masaru Yamaguchi et al.Anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate membrane transporter protein: In molecular biology, the anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate membrane transporter protein family (or C4-dicarboxylate Uptake (Dcu) family) is a family of proteins which includes the DcuA, DcuB and DcuC proteins. Many members of this family are predicted to have 12 GES predicted transmembrane regions, however the one member of this family whose membrane topology has been experimentally determined has 10 transmembrane regions, with both the N- and C-termini localized to the periplasm.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Organic anion-transporting polypeptide: An organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) is a membrane transport protein or 'transporter' that mediates the transport of mainly organic anions across the cell membrane. Therefore OATPs are present in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, acting as the cell's gatekeepers.RotenoneGlucose transporterColes PhillipsTransaminaseList of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsCarbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Glutamate dehydrogenase: Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and vice versa. In animals, the produced ammonia is usually used as a substrate in the urea cycle.Glucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.Potassium sodium tartrateOxalosuccinic acidAminooxyacetic acidPineapple black rot: Pineapple black rot, also known as butt rot, base rot, or white blister, is a disease caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade) Moreau (Anamorph: Thielaviopsis paradoxa (De Seyenes) Höhnel) is the most common and well-known post-harvest disease of the pineapple fruit which is responsible for serious losses in the fresh pineapple fruit world industry.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.P/O ratio: The Phosphate/Oxygen Ratio, or P/O Ratio, refers to the amount of ATP produced from the movement of two electrons through a defined electron transport chain, donated by reduction of an oxygen atom.Garrett & Grisham 2010, p.
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