Lysosome: A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body") is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells). Structurally and chemically, they are spherical vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris.Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein: Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins (lamp) are integral membrane proteins, specific to lysosomes, and whose exact biological function is not yet clear. Structurally, the lamp proteins consist of two internally homologous lysosome-luminal domains separated by a proline-rich hinge region; at the C-terminal extremity there is a transmembrane region (TM) followed by a very short cytoplasmic tail (C).Endosome: In biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway from the plasma membrane to the lysosome.Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP or TRAPase), also called acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant (ACP5), is a glycosylated monomeric metalloprotein enzyme expressed in mammals. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35kDa, a basic isoelectric point (7.Endocytosis: Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell ([+ cytosis]) by engulfing them in an [[energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.Phagolysosome: A phagolysosome is a cytoplasmic body formed by the fusion of a phagosome, or ingested particle, with a lysosome containing hydrolytic enzymes. After fusion, the food particles or pathogens contained within the phagosome are usually digested by the enzymes contained within the lysosome.Autophagy: Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Greek auto-, "self" and phagein, "to eat"), is the natural, destructive mechanism that disassembles, through a regulated process, unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components.Chaperone-mediated autophagy: Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) refers to the chaperone-dependent selection of soluble cytosolic proteins that are then targeted to lysosomes and directly translocated across the lysosome membrane for degradation. The unique features of this type of autophagy are the selectivity on the proteins that are degraded by this pathway and the direct shuttling of these proteins across the lysosomal membrane without the requirement for the formation of additional vesicles (Figure 1).Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Cathepsin: Cathepsins (Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS) are proteases (enzymes that degrade proteins) found in all animals as well as other organisms. There are approximately a dozen members of this family, which are distinguished by their structure, catalytic mechanism, and which proteins they cleave.Food vacuole: The food vacuole, or digestive vacuole, is an organelle found in parasites that cause malaria. During the stage of the parasites' lifecycle where it resides within a human (or other mammalian) red blood cell, it is the site of haemoglobin digestion and the formation of the large haemozoin crystals that can be seen under a light microscope.Cell fractionation: Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets from a larger population of cells.CisternaMediated transportChloroquineRab (G-protein): The Rab family of proteins is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins. Approximately 70 types of Rabs have now been identified in humans.Organelle biogenesis: Organelle biogenesis is the biogenesis, or creation, of cellular organelles in cells. Organelle biogenesis includes the process by which cellular organelles are split between daughter cells during mitosis; this process is called organelle inheritance.Beta-glucuronidaseSialidosisCathepsin B: Cathepsin B (CatB) is an enzymatic protein belonging to the peptidase (or protease) families. In humans, it is coded by the CTSB gene.Effective circulating volume: Effective Circulating Volume (ECV) is the volume of arterial blood (vascular extracellular fluid) effectively perfusing tissue. ECV is a dynamic quantity and not a measurable, distinct compartment.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIDrospirenoneCell membraneArginine repressor ArgR: In molecular biology, the arginine repressor (ArgR) is a repressor of prokaryotic arginine deiminase pathways.Back-Fusion: Back-fusion is the fusion of internal (intraluminal) vesicles within multivesicular bodies or late endosomes with the endosome’s limiting membrane. The process is believed to be mediated by lysobiphosphatidic acid (LBPA), phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, Alix, and an apparent dependence on an acidic pH.Zinc ammonium chloride: Zinc ammonium chloride, also known as diammonium tetrachlorozincate(2-) (IUPAC name), is a zinc salt commonly used as a flux in the process of hot-dip galvanizing. The CAS registry number is 14639-97-5.Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.Horseradish peroxidaseLipid bilayer fusion: In membrane biology, fusion is the process by which two initially distinct lipid bilayers merge their hydrophobic cores, resulting in one interconnected structure. If this fusion proceeds completely through both leaflets of both bilayers, an aqueous bridge is formed and the internal contents of the two structures can mix.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Vesicular transport protein: A vesicular transport protein, or vesicular transporter, is a membrane protein that regulates or facilitates the movement of specific molecules (transporter substrates) across a vesicular membrane. As a result, vesicular transporters govern the concentration of molecules within a vesicle.Immunostaining: Immunostaining is a general term in biochemistry that applies to any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample. The term immunostaining was originally used to refer to the immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections, as first described by Albert Coons in 1941.Weigel Motors: Weigel Motors Ltd was a British automobile manufacturer from 1907-1910 at Coswell Road in London. The company built the first British cars to participate in Grand Prix Racing when it entered 2 cars in the 1907 French Grand Prix at Dieppe, driven by Gregor Laxen and Pryce Harrison.Specific granule: Specific granules are secretory vesicles found exclusively in cells of the immune system called granulocytes.Dermal fibroblast: Dermal fibroblasts are cells within the dermis layer of skin which are responsible for generating connective tissue and allowing the skin to recover from injury. Using organelles (particularly the rough endoplasmic reticulum), dermal fibroblasts generate and maintain the connective tissue which unites separate cell layers.CystinosisPhagocytosis: In cell biology, phagocytosis ( (phagein) |to devour||, (kytos) |cell||-osis|process}}) is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome. Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler, and later studied by Élie Metchnikoff.Mauna Kea Technologies: Mauna Kea Technologies is a global medical device company focused on leading innovation in endomicroscopy, the field of microscopic imaging during endoscopy procedures. The company researches, develops and markets tools to visualize, detect and rule out abnormalities including malignant and pre-malignant tumors or lesions in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary tracts.Macrolide: The macrolides are a group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached. The lactone rings are usually 14-, 15-, or 16-membered.Klincewicz methodExocytosisMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.RabaptinBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Protoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.Plant-specific insertEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Beta Cells: Beta cells are heavily engaged in the synthesis and secretion of insulin. They are therefore particularly sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response(UPR).ESCRT: The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is made up of cytosolic protein complexes, known as ESCRT-0, ESCRT-I, ESCRT-II, and ESCRT-III. Together with a number of accessory proteins, these ESCRT complexes enable a unique mode of membrane remodeling that results in membranes bending/budding away from the cytoplasm.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Biotinylated dextran amine: Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) are organic compounds used as anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracers. They can be used for labeling the source as well as the point of termination of neural connections and therefore to study neural pathways.Coles PhillipsMelanosome: A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells, and is the cellular site of synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom. These melanosomes are responsible for color and photoprotection in animal tissues.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Clathrin adaptor proteins: Proteins synthesized on the ribosome and processed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. These vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction of transport.
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