Clay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.Pars interarticularisCervical fractureQuantitative computed tomographyCancellous bone: Cancellous bone, synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. The other osseous tissue type is cortical bone also called compact bone.Currarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.Spinal fractureSpondylolisthesisInterbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.World Osteoporosis Day: World Osteoporosis Day is observed annually on 20 October, and launches a year-long campaign dedicated to raising global awareness of the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease. Organized by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), World Osteoporosis Day involves campaigns by national osteoporosis patient societies from around the world with activities in over 90 countries.Costovertebral angleCervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.Herbert screw: The Herbert screw (invented by Timothy Herbert) is a variable pitch cannulated screw typically made from titanium for its stainless properties as the screw is normally intended to remain in the patient indefinitely. It became generally available in 1978.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Intervertebral disc damage and spaceflight: Astronauts have expressed an increased incidence of back pain during spaceflight and herniated intervertebral discs (IVD) have been diagnosed upon return of Skylab and Shuttle spaceflight participants.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.X-ray microtomography: X-ray microtomography, like tomography and x-ray computed tomography, uses x-rays to create cross-sections of a physical object that can be used to recreate a virtual model (3D model) without destroying the original object. The prefix micro- (symbol: µ) is used to indicate that the pixel sizes of the cross-sections are in the micrometre range.Inguinal ligament: The inguinal ligament (Poupart's ligament) is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. Its anatomy is very important for operating on hernia patients.Facet joint injection: Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome.Facet Joint SyndromeAlendronic acidDeoxypyridinolineScoliosis Research SocietyLumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.DenosumabHyperintensityPercutaneous vertebroplastyVesselplasty: Vesselplasty is a surgical alternative in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). It is an image-guided procedure that requires conscious sedations and either general or local anesthesia.Elevated alkaline phosphataseWhite meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Arcuate foramen: In human anatomy, arcuate foramen, also known as ponticulus posticus (Latin for "little posterior bridge"), refers to a bony bridge on the atlas (C1 vertebra) that covers the groove for the vertebral artery. It is a common anatomical variation and estimated to occur in approximately 3-15% of the population.Volume rendering: 250px|thumb| A volume rendered cadaver head using view-aligned [[texture mapping and diffuse reflection]]Low back painCamptocormia: CamptocormiaBone marrow suppression: Bone marrow suppression or myelotoxicity (adjective myelotoxic) or myelosuppression is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes). Bone marrow suppression is a serious side effect of chemotherapy and certain drugs affecting the immune system such as azathioprine.Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Hadrosaur diet: Hadrosaurids, also commonly referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs or hadrosaurs, were large terrestrial herbivores. The diet of hadrosaurid dinosaurs remains a subject of debate among paleontologists, especially regarding whether hadrosaurids were grazers who fed on vegetation close to the ground, or browsers who ate higher-growing leaves and twigs.Cement: A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder.Harrington Meeting HouseMyokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingLordosisLaminectomyJohn A. PyleAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Peripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Klippel–Feil syndromeLUSAS: LUSAS is a UK-based developer and supplier of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) application software products that bear the same name.Somitogenesis: Somitogenesis is the process by which somites form. Somites are bilaterally paired blocks of mesoderm that form along the anterior-posterior axis of the developing embryo in segmented animals.Coccyx fracture: A coccyx fracture is a fracture of the coccyx, commonly called a 'broken tailbone'.EratosthenesMedical radiographyMusculoskeletal abnormalityStomochord: The stomochord is a flexible, hollow tube found in hemichordates. Stomochords arise in embryonic development as an outpocketing from the roof of the embryonic gut anterior to the pharynx.Anna of Byzantium (novel): Anna of Byzantium is a historical novel by Tracy Barrett originally published in 1998.Sternal fractureSpinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.