Very low-density lipoprotein: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.AtherosclerosisLipoprotein lipase: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) () is a member of the lipase gene family, which includes pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase. It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), into two free fatty acids and one monoacylglycerol molecule.Lipoprotein(a): Lipoprotein(a) (also called Lp(a) or LPA) is a lipoprotein subclass. Genetic studies and numerous epidemiologic studies have identified Lp(a) as a risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke.CholesterolTriglycerideApolipoprotein L: Apolipoprotein L (Apo L) belongs to the high density lipoprotein family that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The cholesterol content of membranes is important in cellular processes such as modulating gene transcription and signal transduction both in the adult brain and during neurodevelopment.Vitellogenin lipid transport domain: A:18-588Intermediate-density lipoprotein: Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs) belong to the lipoprotein particle family and are formed from the degradation of very low-density lipoproteins. IDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) that enable fats and §cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.YWTD domain of low-density lipoprotein receptor: The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) regulates cholesterol homeostasis in mammalian cells. LDLR binds cholesterol-carrying LDL, associates with clathrin-coated pits, and is internalized into acidic endosomes where it separates from its ligand.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Chylomicron: Chylomicrons (from the Greek chylo, meaning juice or milky fluid, and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%).M Mahmood Hussain: "Review Article: A proposed model for the assembly of chylomicrons"; Arterosclerosis; Vol.Lipoprotein receptor-related protein: Lipoprotein receptor-related proteins, low density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (HGNC) or prolow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (UniProt), abbreviated LRP, are a group of proteins.Apolipoprotein A1: Apolipoprotein A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA1 gene. It has a specific role in lipid metabolism.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GITriacylglycerol lipase: Triacylglycerol lipase (, lipase, butyrinase, tributyrinase, Tween hydrolase, steapsin, triacetinase, tributyrin esterase, Tweenase, amno N-AP, Takedo 1969-4-9, Meito MY 30, Tweenesterase, GA 56, capalase L, triglyceride hydrolase, triolein hydrolase, tween-hydrolyzing esterase, amano CE, cacordase, triglyceridase, triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, amano P, amano AP, PPL, glycerol-ester hydrolase, GEH, meito Sangyo OF lipase, hepatic lipase, lipazin, post-heparin plasma protamine-resistant lipase, salt-resistant post-heparin lipase, heparin releasable hepatic lipase, amano CES, amano B, tributyrase, triglyceride lipase, liver lipase, hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionApolipoprotein A2: Apolipoprotein A-II is an apolipoprotein found in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in plasma.HypertriglyceridemiaLipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.LomitapideLipoproteinApolipoprotein C3: Apolipoprotein C-III also known as apo-CIII is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene. Apo-CIII is a component of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL).PhospholipidAcyltransferaseAnimal fatScavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein domain: In molecular biology, the protein domain SRCR is short for Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. They are found solely in eukaryotes.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Coulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Lipoprotein lipase deficiencyTable of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.TrioleinTingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Hypolipidemic agent: Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. They are called lipid-lowering drugs.Foam party: A foam party is a social event in which participants dance to music on a dance floor covered in several feet of suds or bubbles dispensed from a foam machine.Lipolysis: Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. The following hormones induce lipolysis: epinephrine, norepinephrine, ghrelin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol.Heptadecanoic acidMargaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (also known as "remnant hyperlipidemia", "remnant hyperlipoproteinaemia", "broad beta disease" and "remnant removal disease") is a condition characterized by increased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and decreased HDL levels.AbetalipoproteinemiaNew Zealand rabbitSteglich esterification: The Steglich esterification is a variation of an esterfication with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a coupling reagent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine as a catalyst. The reaction was first described by Wolfgang Steglich in 1978.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.StatinApolipoprotein C4: Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.Mediated transportColes PhillipsSORL1: Sortilin-related receptor, L(DLR class) A repeats containing is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SORL1 gene.HMG-CoA reductase: HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent, ; NADPH-dependent, ) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors: The leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are a family of receptors possessing extracellular immunoglobulin domains.Ethyl oleateEgg lecithinLecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiencyTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.
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