Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples.Diode-pumped solid-state laser: Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are solid-state lasers made by pumping a solid gain medium, for example, a ruby or a neodymium-doped YAG crystal, with a laser diode.Laser coagulation: Laser coagulation or laser photocoagulation surgery is used to treat a number of eye diseases and has become widely used in recent decades. During the procedure, a laser is used to finely cauterize ocular blood vessels to attempt to bring about various therapeutic benefits.Non-surgical liposuctionPhotoablation: Photoablation is the use of light or lasers to destroy tissues. The excimer laser of deep ultra-violet light is mainly used in Photoablation.Dye laser: A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution. Compared to gases and most solid state lasing media, a dye can usually be used for a much wider range of wavelengths, often spanning 50 to 100 nanometers or more.Diffuse lamellar keratitis: Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) is a sterile inflammation of the cornea which may occur after refractive surgery, such as LASIK. Its incidence has been estimated to be 1 in 500 patients, though this may be as high as 32% in some cases.Mauna Kea Technologies: Mauna Kea Technologies is a global medical device company focused on leading innovation in endomicroscopy, the field of microscopic imaging during endoscopy procedures. The company researches, develops and markets tools to visualize, detect and rule out abnormalities including malignant and pre-malignant tumors or lesions in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary tracts.Refractive surgery: Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenses. This can include various methods of surgical remodeling of the cornea or cataract surgery.Scanning laser ophthalmoscopyList of infrared articles: This is a list of Infrared topics.Photorefractive keratectomyArgon–argon dating: Argon–argon (or 40Ar/39Ar) dating is a radiometric dating method invented to supersede potassium-argon (K/Ar) dating in accuracy. The older method required splitting samples into two for separate potassium and argon measurements, while the newer method requires only one rock fragment or mineral grain and uses a single measurement of argon isotopes.Helium–neon laser: A helium–neon laser or HeNe laser, is a type of gas laser whose gain medium consists of a mixture of helium and neon(10:1) inside of a small bore capillary tube, usually excited by a DC electrical discharge. The best-known and most widely used HeNe laser operates at a wavelength of 632.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Solvothermal synthesis: Solvothermal synthesis is a method of producing chemical compounds. It is very similar to the hydrothermal route (where the synthesis is conducted in a stainless steel autoclave), the only difference being that the precursor solution is usually not aqueous (however, this is not always the case in all literature uses of the expression).Hydrogen darkening: Hydrogen darkening is a physical degradation of the optical properties of glass. Free hydrogen atoms are able to bind to the SiO2 silica glass compound forming hydroxyl (OH) - a chemical compound that interferes with the passage of light through the glass.Vector soliton: In physical optics or wave optics, a vector soliton is a solitary wave with multiple components coupled together that maintains its shape during propagation. Ordinary solitons maintain their shape but have effectively only one (scalar) polarization component, while vector solitons have two distinct polarization components.LogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.FetoscopyAvo PhotonicsAngle-resolved low-coherence interferometry: Angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry (a/LCI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology which uses the properties of scattered light to measure the average size of cell structures, including cell nuclei. The technology shows promise as a clinical tool for in situ detection of dysplatic, or precancerous tissue.Cable fault location: Cable fault location is the process of locating periodic faults, such as insulation faults in underground cables, and is an application of electrical measurement systems. In this process, mobile shock discharge generators are among the devices used.Sustainability marketing myopia: Sustainability marketing myopia is a term used in sustainability marketing referring to a distortion stemming from the overlooking of socio-environmental attributes of a sustainable product or service at the expenses of customer benefits and values. The idea of sustainability marketing myopia is rooted into conventional marketing myopia theory, as well as green marketing myopia.Iris dilator musclePhotoimmunotherapy: Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a new type of molecular targeted cancer therapy, which allows the selective destruction of cancer cells in mice without any damage to normal tissues. It is a light-based cancer therapy, which was developed by Professor Kobayashi and his colleagues at National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMacular edemaIntraocular pressureRetinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Diabetic retinopathy: ( )Fluorescent tag: In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. Generally, fluorescent tagging, or labeling, uses a reactive derivative of a fluorescent molecule known as a fluorophore.Charles D. Phelps: Charles Dexter Phelps (September 16, 1937 – September 13, 1985) was a prominent American medical doctor, professor, and researcher in the field of ophthalmology. The clinical studies he oversaw contributed to significant advances in the scientific understanding and surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.Multiphoton fluorescence microscope: A multiphoton fluorescence microscope (MFM) is a specialized optical microscope.Chen Zhongwei: Chen Zhongwei (Chinese:陈中伟, 1929–2004) was an expert of orthopedic surgery and microsurgery, one of the pioneers of the process of reattaching severed limbs.Field emission probesCoherence theory: In physics, coherence theory is the study of optical effects arising from partially coherent light and radio sources. Partially coherent sources are sources where the coherence time or coherence length are limited by bandwidth, by thermal noise, or by other effect.Pheophorbidase: Pheophorbidase (, phedase, PPD) is an enzyme with system name pheophorbide-a hydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionSilicide: A silicide is a compound that has silicon with (usually) more electropositive elements.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Purtscher's retinopathy: Purtscher's retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye (retina) is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other types of trauma, such as long bone fractures, or with several non-traumatic systemic diseases.X-ray scattering techniquesHair removal: Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair.Dermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.Grow lightRotation flap: A rotation flap is a semicircular skin flap that is rotated into the defect on a fulcrum point. Rotation flaps provide the ability to mobilize large areas of tissue with a wide vascular base for reconstruction.Ethernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.Inverted microscope: An inverted microscope is a microscope with its light source and condenser on the top, above the stage pointing down, while the objectives and turret are below the stage pointing up. It was invented in 1850 by J.Optical communication: Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information. It can be performed visually or by using electronic devices.Dissection puzzle: A dissection puzzle, also called a transformation puzzle or Richter Puzzle, is a tiling puzzle where a set of pieces can be assembled in different ways to produce two or more distinct geometric shapes. The creation of new dissection puzzles is also considered to be a type of dissection puzzle.Refractometry: Refractometry is the method of measuring substances' refractive index (one of their fundamental physical properties) in order to, for example, assess their composition or purity. A refractometer is the instrument used to measure refractive index ("RI").Lighting for the elderly: Designing lighting for the elderly requires special consideration and care from architects and lighting designers. As people age, they experience neurodegeneration in the retina and in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).Raman microscope: The Raman microscope is a laser-based microscopic device used to perform Raman spectroscopy.Microscopical techniques in the use of the molecular optics laser examiner Raman microprobe, by M.Inyoite: BO)(OH)·4(HO)Molecular tweezers: thumbnail|200px|Trinitrofluorene bound in molecular tweezers reported by [[Jean-Marie Lehn|Lehn and coworkers.]]Optic disc: The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. BecauseIsotopes of krypton: There are 33 known isotopes of krypton (Kr) with atomic mass numbers from 69 through 101. Naturally occurring krypton is made of six stable isotopes, two of which might theoretically be slightly radioactive, plus traces of radioisotopes that are produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere.Wound healing: Wound healing is an intricate process where the skin or other body tissue repairs itself after injury. In normal skin, the epidermis (surface layer) and dermis (deeper layer) form a protective barrier against the external environment.Nerve fiber layer: The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.