Mallampati scoreHyoepiglottic ligament: The hyoepiglottic ligament is an elastic band connecting the anterior surface of the epiglottis to the upper border of the body of the hyoid bone. It is clinically important in performing direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh laryngoscope blade; the blade tip is placed in the vallecula and moved anteriorly, which causes the hyoepiglottic ligament to pull the epiglottis anteriorly as well and thus expose the glottis.History of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Infraglottic cavity: The infraglottic cavity is the portion of the larynx below the laryngeal ventricles and the rima glottidis.Airway management: Airway management are a set of medical procedures performed in order to prevent airway obstruction and thus ensuring an open pathway between a patient’s lungs and the outside world. This is accomplished by clearing or preventing obstructions of airways, often referred to as choking, caused by the tongue, the airways themselves, foreign bodies or materials from the body itself, such as blood or stomach content, the latter resulting in aspiration.Vocal cord paresisHydrogen darkening: Hydrogen darkening is a physical degradation of the optical properties of glass. Free hydrogen atoms are able to bind to the SiO2 silica glass compound forming hydroxyl (OH) - a chemical compound that interferes with the passage of light through the glass.Glottis: The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds Ladefoged, Peter. 2006.Vocal folds: The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation.General anaesthesia: General anaesthesia (or general anesthesia) is a medically induced coma and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents. A variety of medications may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, relaxation of skeletal muscles, and loss of control of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system.Professional DiscLaryngitisPharyngeal consonant: A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx. Some phoneticians distinguish upper pharyngeal consonants, or "high" pharyngeals, pronounced by retracting the root of the tongue in the mid to upper pharynx, from (ary)epiglottal consonants, or "low" pharyngeals, which are articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis in the lower larynx, and even epiglotto-pharyngeal consonants consisting of both those movements combined.RetrognathismNational Dental Board of Anesthesiology: The National Dental Board of Anesthesiology (NDBA) is an American professional association established in 2001 by the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. Based in Chicago, NDBA is the world's largest national dental board devoted to sedation and anesthesia.Single-use bioreactor: A single-use bioreactor or disposable bioreactor is a bioreactor with a disposable bag instead of a culture vessel. Typically, this refers to a bioreactor in which the lining in contact with the cell culture will be plastic, and this lining is encased within a more permanent structure (typically, either a rocker or a cuboid or cylindrical steel support).Dental subluxation: Dental subluxation is a traumatic injury in which the tooth has increased mobility (i.e.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.LaerdalEpiglottitisSubglottic stenosisRima glottidis: The rima glottidis is the opening between the true vocal cords and the arytenoid cartilages.Piriform sinus: On either side of the laryngeal orifice is a recess, termed the piriform sinus (also piriform recess, pyriform sinus, piriform fossa, or smuggler's fossa), which is bounded medially by the aryepiglottic fold, laterally by the thyroid cartilage and thyrohyoid membrane. The fossae are involved in speech.Dysprosody: Dysprosody, which may manifest as pseudo-foreign accent syndrome, refers to a disorder in which one or more of the prosodic functions are either compromised or eliminated completely.Judith Kuster: Judith Maginnis Kuster, aka Judith A. Kuster, is a certified speech-language pathologist and professor in the Department of Speech, Hearing and Rehabilitation Services at Minnesota State University, Mankato.Propofol infusion syndrome: Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of the anaesthetic and sedative drug propofol. It can lead to cardiac failure, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure, and is often fatal.Peripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.DysgeusiaCervical fractureGail Robinson (soprano): Gail Robinson (7 August 1946 – 19 October 2008) was an American operatic soprano who sang with many of the world's leading opera companies during the 1970s and 1980s. She spent most of her career singing lyric coloratura roles at the Metropolitan Opera.SuccinylmonocholineCleft chin