Lactagen: Lactagen was a nutritional supplement produced by Ritter Pharmaceuticals that claimed to reduce the symptoms of lactose intolerance. In 2011, Ritter Pharmaceuticals ceased sales of Lactagen, and other dietary supplements, in order to pursue FDA approval for a treatment for lactose intolerance.Glycoside hydrolase family 22: In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 22 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.Lactase persistence: Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning.Electroneutral cation-Cl: In molecular biology, the electroneutral cation-Cl (electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransporter) family of proteins are a family of solute carrier proteins. This family includes the products of the Human genes: SLC12A1, SLC12A1, SLC12A2, SLC12A3, SLC12A4, SLC12A5, SLC12A6, SLC12A7, SLC12A8 and SLC12A9.Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Galactoside: A galactoside is a glycoside containing galactose. The H of the OH group on carbon-1 of galactose is replaced by an organic moiety.Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.Hydrogen gas porosity: Hydrogen gas porosity is an aluminium casting defect under the form of a porosity or void in an aluminium casting caused by a high level of hydrogen gas (H2) dissolved in the aluminium at liquid phase. Because the solubility of hydrogen in solid aluminium is much smaller than in liquid aluminium, when the aluminium freezes, the dissolved hydrogen gas creates porosity in solid aluminium.Actimel: Actimel (also known as DanActive in the United States and Canada) is a 'probiotic' yogurt-type drink produced by the French company Danone. It is sold in 100ml bottles, typically as an 8, 6 or 4 pack, but more recently as a 12 or 16 pack.Erythromycin breath test: The erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is a method used to measure metabolism (oxidation and elimination from the system) by a part of the cytochrome P450 system. Erythromycin is tagged with carbon-14 and given as an intravenous injection; after 20 minutes the subject blows up a balloon and the carbon dioxide exhaled that is tagged with carbon-14 shows the activity of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme on the erythromycin.MelibiuloseList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Escherichia coli (molecular biology): Escherichia coli (; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Powder coating: [Coating Aluminium Extrusions.jpg|thumb|right|Aluminium extrusions being powder coated]Vaginal flatulence: Vaginal flatulence is an emission or expulsion of air from the vagina. It may occur during or after sexual intercourse or during other sexual acts, stretching or exercise.Disaccharide: A disaccharide or bioseBiose on www.merriam-webster.Lactalbumin: Lactalbumin is the albumin contained in milk and obtained from whey. Lactalbumin is found in the milk of many mammals.Glycomimetic: Glycomimetic is a term used to refer to molecules that have structures similar to carbohydrates, but with some variation.Carbohydrate Research Volume 342, Issues 12-13, Pages 1537-1982 This will normally result in modified biological properties.Phosphocarrier proteinHigh maltose corn syrup: High maltose corn syrup is a food additive used as a sweetener and preservative. The majority sugar is maltose.Glycoside: In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms.Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranosideMale lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.ActoBiotics: ActoBiotics (a registered trademark) consist of food-grade bacteria (Lactococcus lactis), genetically engineered to synthesize and secrete therapeutic proteins and peptides in situ. ActoBiotics are delivered to patients via oral administration instead of injection, and specifically target receptors and cells localized in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues.International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council: International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council is a global organization founded in 1991 representing producers, suppliers, and end users of excipients. The body has three divisions in Europe, Japan, and the United States, each of which focuses on local regulations concerning the excipients market, as well as on new research and business practices.MalabsorptionCarbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Glucose transporterStreptococcus dysgalactiae: Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a species of Streptococcus.LactuloseBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Galectin: Galectins are a family of proteins defined by their binding specificity for β-galactoside sugars, such as N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1-3GlcNAc or Galβ1-4GlcNAc), which can be bound to proteins by either N-linked or O-linked glycosylation. They are also termed S-type lectins due to their dependency on disulphide bonds for stability and carbohydrate binding.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Kluyveromyces marxianus: Kluyveromyces marxianus is a species of yeast in the genus Kluyveromyces, and is the sexual form (teleomorph) of Candida kefyr. K.ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of medicinal chemistry. Founded in 2009, this online journal is published monthly by the American Chemical Society.Amphiregulin: Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.Bifidobacterium longum: Bifidobacterium longum is a gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium present in the human gastrointestinal tract and one of the 32 species that belong to the genus Bifidobacterium. It is a micro-aerotolerant anaerobe and considered to be one of the earliest colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract of infants.Transcellular transport: Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell. One classic example is the movement of glucose from the intestinal lumen to extracellular fluid by epithelial cells.Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis: Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly L. sanfrancisco) is a species of lactic acid bacteria that helps give sourdough bread its characteristic taste.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Leguminous lectin family: In molecular biology, the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins.Mediated transportColes PhillipsCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Whey concentrate: Whey protein concentrate is the cheapest and most common form of whey protein, a byproduct of cheese production. Whey protein concentrate is a common Bodybuilding supplement used to increase dietary protein intake, often with the goal of maximizing muscle hypertrophy.MelezitoseUridine diphosphate galactoseCellobioseLactobacillus acidophilus: Lactobacillus acidophilus (New Latin 'acid-loving milk-bacterium') is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus. L.CholineConstitutive enzyme: Constitutive enzymeshttp://goldbook.iupac.N-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.Chemical modification: ==Chemical modification in chemistry==Calcium deficiency (plant disorder): Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue. Plants are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or nontranspiring tissues because calcium is not transported in the phloem.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the science behind probiotics and prebiotics. ISAPP participates in science-based written and oral communications and responds to emerging scientific issues regarding probiotics and prebiotics.Effervescent tablet: Effervescent or carbon tablets are tablets which are designed to break in contact with water or another liquid, releasing carbon dioxide in the process.British Pharmacopeia 2003 Rapid breakdown often may cause the tablet to dissolve into a solution, and is also often followed by a froth.Aritox: The term aritox occurs in names of monoclonal antibodies and indicates that they are linked to an A chain of the ricin protein.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Disaccharidase: Disaccharidases are glycoside hydrolases, enzymes that break down certain types of sugars called disaccharides into simpler sugars called monosaccharides. A genetic defect in one of these enzymes will cause a disaccharide intolerance, such as lactose intolerance or sucrose intolerance.Uptake hexose phosphateGalactokinase deficiencyKwashiorkorTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Operon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Glucosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase: Glucosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (, lactosylceramide synthase, uridine diphosphate-galactose:glucosyl ceramide beta 1-4 galactosyltransferase, UDP-Gal:glucosylceramide beta1->4galactosyltransferase, GalT-2, UDP-galactose:beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-alpha-D-galactose:beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionFructose malabsorptionSpecificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily: The alpha-D-phosphohexomutases are a large enzyme superfamily, with members in all three domains of life. Enzymes from this superfamily are ubiquitous in organisms from E.Actinomyces israelii: Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria within the Actinomyces. Known to live commensally on and within humans, A.