Lactone: Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase: Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase (, acyl-homoserine lactone synthase, acyl homoserine lactone synthase, acyl-homoserinelactone synthase, acylhomoserine lactone synthase, AHL synthase, AHS, AHSL synthase, AhyI, AinS, AinS protein, autoinducer synthase, autoinducer synthesis protein rhlI, EsaI, ExpISCC1, ExpISCC3065, LasI, LasR, LuxI, LuxI protein, LuxM, N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase, RhlI, YspI, acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing)) is an enzyme with system name acyl-(acyl-carrier protein):S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing). This eQuorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase: Quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (, acyl homoserine degrading enzyme, acyl-homoserine lactone acylase, AHL lactonase, AHL-degrading enzyme, AHL-inactivating enzyme, AHLase, AhlD, AhlK, AiiA, AiiA lactonase, AiiA-like protein, AiiB, AiiC, AttM, delactonase, lactonase-like enzyme, N-acyl homoserine lactonase, N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase, N-acyl-homoserine lactone lactonase, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase, quorum-quenching lactonase, quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase) is an enzyme with system name N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone lactonohydrolase.{{cite journal | title = The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase |author = Kim, M.Autoinducer-2Sesquiterpene lactone: Sesquiterpene lactones are a class of chemical compounds; they are sesquiterpenoids (built from three isoprene units) and contain a lactone ring, hence the name. They are found in many plants and can cause allergic reactions and toxicity if overdosed, particularly in grazing livestock.KavainChromobacterium violaceum: Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-sporing coccobacillus.It is motile with the help of a single flagellum which is located at the pole of the coccobacillus.Costunolide synthase: Costunolide synthase () is an enzyme with system name germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6alpha-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPectobacterium carotovorum: Pectobacterium carotovorum is a bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae; it formerly was a member of the genus Erwinia.GyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.Tithonia diversifoliaVernonia amygdalina: Vernonia amygdalina, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a small shrub that grows in the tropical Africa. V.Salvia involucrata: Salvia involucrata (Roseleaf sage) is a herbaceous perennial belonging to the family Lamiaceae. It is native to the Mexican states of Puebla, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz, growing in shady places such as the edge of forests.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Macrolide: The macrolides are a group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached. The lactone rings are usually 14-, 15-, or 16-membered.MethanofuranTriacetic acid lactoneAbsinthinMannosylfructose-phosphate synthase: Mannosylfructose-phosphate synthase (, mannosylfructose-6-phosphate synthase, MFPS) is an enzyme with system name GDP-mannose:D-fructose-6-phosphate 2-alpha-D-mannosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionChlorophyllase: Chlorophyllase (klawr-uh-fil-eys)chlorophyllase - Definitions from is the key enzyme in chlorophyll metabolism.SaccharolipidEuprymna scolopes: __NOTOC__Florus and Laurus: Saints Florus and Laurus are venerated as Christian martyrs of the 2nd century. According to a GreekLives of the saints, Tome 3, by Alban Butler,Herbert Thurston,Donald Attwater,"FLORUS AND LAURUS, MARTYRS (DATE UNKNOWN) ACCORDING to a Greek tale Florus and Laurus were brothers, stonemasons, who were employed upon the building of a...EndiveVibrio campbellii: Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.Mycena fonticola: Mycena fonticola is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. First reported in 2007, it is known only from central Honshu, in Japan, where it grows on dead leaves and twigs in low-elevation forests dominated by oak trees.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Burkholderia kururiensis: Burkholderia kururiensis is a species of proteobacteria.PhytomedicineChromatographic response function: Chromatographic response function, often abbreviated to CRF, is a coefficient which measures the quality of the separation in the result of a chromatography.IrinotecanPantoea agglomerans: Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.DiisopropylphosphateCarlon ColkerWithaferin AGeranic acidSharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation: Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (also called the Sharpless bishydroxylation) is the chemical reaction of an alkene with osmium tetroxide in the presence of a chiral quinine ligand to form a vicinal diol.AxillarinColes PhillipsBiofilmAndrographis paniculataPyrethrin IIYamaguchi esterification: The Yamaguchi esterification is the chemical reaction of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (TCBC, Yamaguchi reagent) to form a mixed anhydride which, upon reaction with an alcohol in the presence of stoichiometric amount of DMAP, produces the desired ester. It was first reported by Masaru Yamaguchi et al.Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Artemisia annua: Artemisia annua, also known as sweet wormwood, sweet annie, sweet sagewort, annual mugwort or annual wormwood (), is a common type of wormwood native to temperate Asia, but naturalized in many countries including scattered parts of North America.Flora of China Vol.SantoninShatter (novel): Shatter is a psychological thriller written by the Australian author Michael Robotham that was published in 2008. Professor Joseph O'Loughlin (referred to as Joe throughout the novel) is tasked by the police with stopping a woman, Christine Wheeler, from committing suicide, only to fail.Aldonic acidAmmonium cyanidePseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.DiketoneHafnia (bacterium): Hafnia is the genus of the Enterobacteriaceae family whose only species is the Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium Hafnia alvei.MethanophenazineATCvet code QP54: ==QP54A Macrocyclic lactones==Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Ethyl groupChoanephora cucurbitarum: The fungus Choanephora cucurbitarum is a plant pathogen that causes fruit and blossom rot of various cucurbits. It can also affect okra, snap bean, and southern pea, and may cause a stem and leaf rot of Withania somnifera.Centaurea maculosa: Centaurea maculosa, the spotted knapweed, is a species of Centaurea native to eastern Europe.CHAP domain: In molecular biology, the CHAP domain is a region between 110 and 140 amino acids that is found in proteins from bacteria, bacteriophages, archaea and eukaryotes of the Trypanosomidae family. The domain is named after the acronym cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases.Laminaria digitata: Laminaria digitata is a large brown alga in the family Laminariaceae, also known by the common name Oarweed. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic Ocean.Tanacetum camphoratum: Tanacetum camphoratum is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common names camphor tansy and dune tansy. It is native to the Pacific Coast of North America from British Columbia to California, where it grows in sand dunes and other coastline habitat.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Repressor: In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers. A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA.Hydrogen silsesquioxane: [T8 Cube.png|200px|thumbnail|right| Hydrogen silsesquioxane (R = H).Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Platynota stultana: The Omnivorous Leafroller (Platynota stultana) is a moth of the Tortricidae family. It is found in Mexico, California, Arizona, Texas, Florida and Hawaii.Mesohyl: The mesohyl, formerly known as mesenchyme or as mesoglea, is the gelatinous matrix within a sponge. It fills the space between the external pinacoderm and the internal choanoderm.Rhodococcus fascians: Rhodococcus fascians (known as Corynebacterium fascians until 1984) is a Gram positive bacterial phytopathogen that causes leafy gall disease. R.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Countercurrent chromatographyEndodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Adipate: Adipate (−OOC-(CH2)4-COO−) is the depronated anion of adipic acid. It's salts, known as adipates are used as acidity regulatorsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.