Polysomy: Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e.AzoospermiaGynecomastiaPRINS (gene): PRINS (psoriasis associated RNA induced by stress) is a long non-coding RNA. Its expression is induced by stress, and it may have a protective role in cells exposed to stress.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Male infertilityConfined placental mosaicism: Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) represents a discrepancy between the chromosomal makeup of the cells in the placenta and the cells in the baby. CPM was first described by Kalousek and Dill in 1983.FNA Mapping: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been used to examine pathological human tissue from various organs for over 100 years.,Posner C.Blood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Prenatal testosterone transfer: Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development. This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology, though some studies have found that testosterone transfer can cause an exaggerated masculinization in males.