Renal stone formation in space: Renal stone formation and passage during space flight can potentially pose a severe risk to crew member health and safety and could affect mission outcome. While the renal stones are routinely and successfully treated on Earth, the occurrence of these during space flight can prove to be problematic.Muhammad Aqa-Kermani: Muhammad Aqa-Kermani () also written Aqkirmani was an 18th century Persian physician from Kerman, Iran.Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi: Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi was a mid-16th-century Persian physician from Shiraz, Iran.Ethylene glycol poisoningEnterolithPercutaneous nephrostomyAromadendrinCalculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Bladder stoneKidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsyGordon Hobday: Sir Gordon Ivan Hobday (1 February 1916 - 27 May 2015) was a British scientist who worked on penicillin with Alexander Fleming and is noted for his role as director of the Boots research team that developed ibuprofen. He later became chairman of Boots.UreteroscopySialoendoscopy: Sialoendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that allows for salivary gland surgery for the safe and effective treatment of sialadenitis and other conditions of the salivary glands. During sialoendoscopy a small camera is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts that empty into the mouth.Chronic allograft nephropathy: Chronic allograft nephropathy, abbreviated CAN and also known as sclerosing/chronic allograft nephropathy, is the leading cause of kidney transplant failure and happens month to years after the transplant.Freddy Rides Again: Freddy Rides Again (1951) is the 18th book in the humorous children’s series Freddy the Pig written by American author Walter R. Brooks and illustrated by Kurt Wiese.Herniaria hirsuta: Herniaria hirsuta is a species of flowering plant in the pink family known by the common name hairy rupturewort. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa, and it is known on other continents, including North America, as an introduced species.UrolithiasisGas pyelogram: A Gas pyelogram is a pyelogram in which the kidneys, renal pelvis and ureters are filled with gas, and have a radiolucent appearance. This gas is produced by some gas producing micro organisms which infect most upper parts of urinary system.Renal cortexGallstone: ), cholelithiasisNathan W. LevinTRPP: TRPP (Transient Receptor Potential Polycystic) is a family of transient receptor potential ion channels which when mutated can cause polycystic kidney disease.Drug reference standard: A drug reference standard is a standardized substance which is used as a measurement base for similar substances. Where the exact active substances of a new drug are not known, a reference standard provides a calibrated level of biological effects against which new preparations of the drug can be compared.Podocin: Podocin is a protein component of the filtration slits of podocytes. Glomerular capillary endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the filtration slits function as the filtration barrier of the kidney glomerulus.Magnesium phosphate: Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate appearing in three forms:Kidney tumour: Kidney tumours (or kidney tumors), also known as renal tumours, are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).International Cystinuria Foundation: The International Cystinuria Foundation (ICF) is a Colorado based nonprofit organization that provides educational resources to individuals affected by cystinuria. Its mission is to strengthen, educate, and further the general well being of the cystinuric community.HydronephrosisProximal convoluted tubule: The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.Renal medullaOctacalcium phosphateHorse colic: Colic in horses is defined as abdominal pain, but it is a clinical sign rather than a diagnosis. The term colic can encompass all forms of gastrointestinal conditions which cause pain as well as other causes of abdominal pain not involving the gastrointestinal tract.