Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Chronic allograft nephropathy: Chronic allograft nephropathy, abbreviated CAN and also known as sclerosing/chronic allograft nephropathy, is the leading cause of kidney transplant failure and happens month to years after the transplant.Renal cortexNathan W. LevinTRPP: TRPP (Transient Receptor Potential Polycystic) is a family of transient receptor potential ion channels which when mutated can cause polycystic kidney disease.Podocin: Podocin is a protein component of the filtration slits of podocytes. Glomerular capillary endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the filtration slits function as the filtration barrier of the kidney glomerulus.Kidney tumour: Kidney tumours (or kidney tumors), also known as renal tumours, are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).Proximal convoluted tubule: The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.Renal medullaRenal stone formation in space: Renal stone formation and passage during space flight can potentially pose a severe risk to crew member health and safety and could affect mission outcome. While the renal stones are routinely and successfully treated on Earth, the occurrence of these during space flight can prove to be problematic.Polycystic kidney diseaseFiltration fraction: In renal physiology, the filtration fraction is the ratio of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to the renal plasma flow (RPF).Joubert syndromeCreatinineNephrectomyUreteroureterostomy: Ureteroureterostomy ( "urétero-uréte-róstomy") is end-to-end connection (anastomosis) of the two portions of a transected ureter; also called ureteroureteral anastomosis and van Hook operation (after Weller van Hook, surgeon).http://www.Kennel clubLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIProteinuriaTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGoldberg–Shprintzen syndrome: Goldberg–Shprintzen is a condition associated with mutations in KIAA1279 gene which encodes KIF-binding protein (KBP), a protein that may interact with microtubules and actin filament. KBP may play a key role in cytoskeleton formation and neurite growth.Fibrocystin: Fibrocystin is a large, =) receptor-like protein that is thought to be involved in the tubulogenesis and/or maintenance of duct-lumen architecture of epithelium.Xenotransplantation: Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.Xenotransplantation.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Artificial kidney: Artificial kidney is often a synonym for hemodialysis, but may also, more generally, refer to renal replacement therapies (with exclusion of kidney transplantation) that are in use and/or in development. This article deals with bioengineered kidneys/bioartificial kidneys that are grown from renal cell lines/renal tissue.PKD domain: B:353–424 A:1363–1442 A:1363–1442Coles PhillipsDiabetic nephropathyGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.HydronephrosisOrgan procurement organization: In the United States, an organ procurement organization (OPO) is a non-profit organization that is responsible for the evaluation and procurement of deceased-donor organs for organ transplantation. There are 58 such organizations in the United States, each responsible for organ procurement in a specific region, and each a member of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, a federally mandated network created by and overseen by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS).Immunosuppressive drug: Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:Focal proliferative nephritis: Focal proliferative nephritis is a type of glomerulonephritis seen in 20% to 35% of cases of lupus nephritis, classified as type III. As the name suggests, lesions are seen in less than half of the glomeruli.Dialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.MicroalbuminuriaSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Nephrology: Nephrology (from Greek [nephros "kidney]", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a [[Specialty (medicine)|specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions that affect the kidneys (such as diabetes and autoimmune disease) and systemic problems that occur as a result of kidney problems (such as renal osteodystrophy and hypertension) are also studied in nephrology.Nephrin: Nephrin is a protein necessary for the proper functioning of the renal filtration barrier. The renal filtration barrier consists of fenestrated endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane, and the podocytes of epithelial cells.Renal functionSquamous epithelial cell: In anatomy, squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.Klinikum GroßhadernAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Nephrotoxicity: Nephrotoxicity (from Greek: nephros, "kidney") is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medication, on the kidneys. There are various forms of toxicity.Renin: Renin, Iran}}GlomerulonephritisCharles Horsfall: Charles Horsfall (21 June 1776 – 18 June 1846) was Bailiff and then Lord Mayor of Liverpool from 1832–1833.Hypertensive nephropathyHypertensionFresolimumabTumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.New Zealand rabbitRenal replacement therapy: Renal replacement therapy is a term used to encompass life-supporting treatments for renal failure.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Renal cell carcinomaGoldblatt kidney: Goldblatt kidney is a condition of the kidney in which a constriction of the renal artery causes renal ischemia and the release of renin which would cause hypertension.