Thomas Girdlestone: Thomas Girdlestone (Holt, Norfolk, 1758 – 25 June 1822) was an English physician and writer.Joint replacementMetallosis: Metallosis is the putative medical condition involving deposition and build-up of metal debris in the soft tissues of the body.Dredge ball joint: A dredge ball joint is a connection between two pipes that are used to transport a mixture of water and sand from a dredger to the discharging area.Robot-assisted double heart valve replacement: The first robotic-assisted double heart valve replacement was carried out in the Chennai region of India at Chettinad Hospital. Considered a rare form of surgery, this is the first instance of such a procedure using robotic surgery.Knee pain: Knee pain is a common complaint for many people. There are several factors that can cause knee pain.Utkal Prantiya Marwari Yuva ManchPhotovoltaic retinal prosthesis: Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis is a technology for restoring sight to blind patients suffering from degenerative retinal diseases. In retinal degenerative diseases such as Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age-Related Macular Degeneration, patients loss ‘image capturing’ photo-receptors, but, neurons in the ‘image-processing’ inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved.Discharge coefficient: In a nozzle or other constriction, the discharge coefficient (also known as coefficient of discharge) is the ratio of the actual discharge to the theoretical discharge,Sam Mannan, Frank P. Lee, Lee's Loss Prevention in the Process Industries: Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control, Volume 1, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, 2005.Hip resurfacing: 155px|right|thumb|The BHRHeberden's nodeRunning room (dentistry): In implant dentistry, running room refers to the apico-coronal distance between the platform of a dental implant and the gingival margin. It is a critical factor in restorative implant dentistry because it is effectively the "vertical distance [available subgingivaly] to make a transition from the smaller diameter prosthetic platform of an implant to the larger cross-sectional cervical shape of the tooth being restored.Footballer's ankle: Footballer's Ankle is a pinching or impingement of the ligaments or tendons of the ankle between the bones, particularly the talus and tibia. This results in pain, inflammation and swelling.Kurt KossmannOpacifier: An opacifier is a substance added to a material in order to make the ensuing system opaque. An example of a chemical opacifier is titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is used to opacify ceramic glazesTin Oxide ( SnO2 ) Stannic Oxide – Properties and Applications, The A to Z of Materials.John C. Snidecor: John Clifton Snidecor (October 18, 1907 - December 14, 1983) was an American professor and educator. He joined the faculty at Santa Barbara College of the University of California (now UCSB) in 1940 and served as acting provost of from February to June 1956.Ocular prosthesisHydrocodone/ibuprofenShoulder arthritis: Shoulder arthritis can be one of three types of arthritis in the glenohumeral joint of the shoulder. The glenohumeral joint is a ball and socket joint, which relies on cartilage to move smoothly and to operate normally.Revision using distal inflow: Revision Using Distal Inflow (RUDI) is a surgical treatment for Dialysis-associated Steal Syndrome.Synovial joint: A synovial joint, also known as diarthrosis, joins bones with a fibrous joint capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of the joined bones, constitutes the outer boundary of a synovial cavity, and surrounds the bones' articulating surfaces. The synovial (or joint) cavity is filled with synovial fluid.Henry Beighton: Henry Beighton (c. 20 August 1687 – 9 October 1743) was an English engineer and surveyor.Oxford knee score: The Oxford Knee Score (OKS) is a Patient Reported Outcome questionnaire that was developed to specifically assess the patient's perspective of outcome following Total Knee Arthroplasty. The OKS has subsequently been validated for use in assessing other non-surgical therapies applied to those suffering from issues with the knee.Sacroiliac joint dysfunction: Sacroiliac joint dysfunction, also called sacroiliac joint disorder, sacroiliac joint disease, sacroiliac joint syndrome or sacroiliac syndrome, or "sacroilliac dysfunction and instability", generally refers to pain in the sacroiliac joint region that is caused by abnormal motion in the sacroiliac joint, either too much motion or too little motion. It typically results in inflammation of the sacroiliac joint, and can be debilitating.George Allan HancockCement: A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder.Osteoarthritis Research Society International: The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) is a non-profit scientific organization.OARSI.Silicone foamMinimally invasive hip resurfacing: Minimally invasive hip resurfacing (MIS) is "total or partial hip surgery that can be carried out through an incision of less than 10 cm (3.94 inches) without imparting great forces on the anatomy or compromising component positioning"Comis Orthopaedics websiteMechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.