History of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Francis George Atkinson: Francis George Atkinson (1874 – 6 December 1902) was the first district officer in Jesselton at British North Borneo.Mallampati scoreHyoepiglottic ligament: The hyoepiglottic ligament is an elastic band connecting the anterior surface of the epiglottis to the upper border of the body of the hyoid bone. It is clinically important in performing direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh laryngoscope blade; the blade tip is placed in the vallecula and moved anteriorly, which causes the hyoepiglottic ligament to pull the epiglottis anteriorly as well and thus expose the glottis.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Trachealis muscle: The trachealis muscle is a smooth muscle that bridges the gap between the free ends of C-shaped cartilages at the posterior border of the trachea, adjacent to the esophagus.General anaesthesia: General anaesthesia (or general anesthesia) is a medically induced coma and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents. A variety of medications may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, relaxation of skeletal muscles, and loss of control of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system.Single-use bioreactor: A single-use bioreactor or disposable bioreactor is a bioreactor with a disposable bag instead of a culture vessel. Typically, this refers to a bioreactor in which the lining in contact with the cell culture will be plastic, and this lining is encased within a more permanent structure (typically, either a rocker or a cuboid or cylindrical steel support).SuccinylmonocholineCombined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema describes a medical syndrome involving both pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The combination is most commonly found in male smokers.LaerdalAlveolar gas equation: The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the pulmonary alveoli is required to calculate both the alveolar-arterial gradient of oxygen and the amount of right-to-left cardiac shunt, which are both clinically useful quantities. However it is not practical to take a sample of gas from the alveoli in order to directly measure the partial pressure of oxygen.National Dental Board of Anesthesiology: The National Dental Board of Anesthesiology (NDBA) is an American professional association established in 2001 by the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. Based in Chicago, NDBA is the world's largest national dental board devoted to sedation and anesthesia.Cricoid cartilage: The cricoid cartilage , or simply cricoid (from the Greek krikoeides meaning "ring-shaped"), is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea. It forms the back part of the voice box and functions as an attachment site for muscles, cartilages, and ligaments involved in opening and closing the airway and in producing speech.Peak inspiratory pressure: Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) is the highest level of pressure applied to the lungs during inhalation. In mechanical ventilation the number reflects a positive pressure in centimeters of water pressure (cmH2O).Hospital-acquired pneumonia: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia.Aspiration pneumoniaAlveolar macrophageTracheitisBeta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Infraglottic cavity: The infraglottic cavity is the portion of the larynx below the laryngeal ventricles and the rima glottidis.Sir Robert Charles Griggs: Sir Robert Charles Griggs (born 1936) is a country and jazz musician living in Hemet, CA.Chronic lung diseasePropofol infusion syndrome: Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of the anaesthetic and sedative drug propofol. It can lead to cardiac failure, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure, and is often fatal.Surfactant metabolism dysfunction: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a condition where pulmonary surfactant is insufficient for adequate respiration.Nasolacrimal duct: The nasolacrimal duct (sometimes called the tear duct) carries tears from the lacrimal sac into the nasal cavity. The opening of the nasolacrimal duct into the inferior nasal meatus is partially covered by a mucosal fold (valve of Hasner or plica lacrimalis).Pulmonary artery sling: Pulmonary artery sling is a rare condition in which the left pulmonary artery anomalously originates from a normally positioned right pulmonary artery. The left pulmonary artery then progresses posteriorly over the right main bronchus near its origin from the trachea, traverses between the trachea and the esophagus and enters the left hilum.Congenital lacrimal duct obstructionProfessional DiscTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Glottis: The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds Ladefoged, Peter. 2006.Sony camcorders: Sony produces professional and prosumer camcorders.Anesthesia cart: Anesthesia carts are hospital devices used to store tools that are necessary for aid during procedures that require administration of anesthesia. Anesthesia refers to the use of drugs to subdue a patient's mind and prevent him or her from feeling any pain during a surgical operation.Endobronchial valve: An endobronchial valve is an implantable medical device—a small, one-way valve, which is implanted in an airway in the pulmonary system to treat one of several lung conditions. The one-way endobronchial valve is typically implanted such that when a patient exhales, air is able to flow through the valve and out of the lung compartment that is fed by that airway, but when the patient inhales, the valve closes and blocks air from entering that lung compartment.Postoperative residual curarization: Postoperative residual curarization (PORC) is a residual paresis after emergence from general anesthesia with neuromuscular-blocking drugs.OhmefentanylFlash pulmonary edema: In medicine, flash pulmonary edema (oedema in British English) (FPE), is rapid onset pulmonary edema. It is most often precipitated by acute myocardial infarction or mitral regurgitation, but can be caused by aortic regurgitation, heart failure, or almost any cause of elevated left ventricular filling pressures.Silicon dioxideBacterial pneumoniaParamedic: A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance.HydroxyprolineShigeto Ikeda: was a Japanese physician, regarded as the "father" of fiberoptic bronchoscopy.Neutrophil granulocytePharyngeal consonant: A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx. Some phoneticians distinguish upper pharyngeal consonants, or "high" pharyngeals, pronounced by retracting the root of the tongue in the mid to upper pharynx, from (ary)epiglottal consonants, or "low" pharyngeals, which are articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis in the lower larynx, and even epiglotto-pharyngeal consonants consisting of both those movements combined.Quartz tube furnaceInfant respiratory distress syndromeSilicosisNosebleedList of emergency medicine courses: This list of emergency medicine courses contains programs often required to be taken by emergency medical providers, including emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and emergency physicians.Appointment on Route 17: Appointment on Route 17 is the fiftieth episode and the fifteenth episode of the third season (1988–89) of the television series The Twilight Zone.Premedication: Premedication refer to a drug treatment given to a patient before a (surgical or invasive) medical procedure. These drugs are typically sedative or analgesic.Inhalational anaesthetic: An inhalational anaesthetic is a chemical compound possessing general anaesthetic properties that can be delivered via inhalation. They are administered by anaesthetists (a term which includes anaesthesiologists, nurse anaesthetists, and anaesthesiologist assistants) through an anaesthesia mask, laryngeal mask airway or tracheal tube connected to an anaesthetic vaporiser and an anaesthetic delivery system.Rima glottidis: The rima glottidis is the opening between the true vocal cords and the arytenoid cartilages.Lidocaine: lignocaineTracheotomyProcedural sedation and analgesia: Procedural sedation and analgesia, previously referred to as conscious sedation, is defined as "a technique of administering sedatives or dissociative agents with or without analgesics to induce a state that allows the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining cardiorespiratory function."Nonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.