Cell membraneMembrane lipidsReversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.CisternaEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Beta Cells: Beta cells are heavily engaged in the synthesis and secretion of insulin. They are therefore particularly sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response(UPR).Membrane fluidity: In biology, membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane or a synthetic lipid membrane. Lipid packing can influence the fluidity of the membrane.Cell fractionation: Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets from a larger population of cells.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.SNARE (protein): SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) REceptor") are a large protein superfamily consisting of more than 60 members in yeast and mammalian cells.Coles PhillipsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Vesicular transport protein: A vesicular transport protein, or vesicular transporter, is a membrane protein that regulates or facilitates the movement of specific molecules (transporter substrates) across a vesicular membrane. As a result, vesicular transporters govern the concentration of molecules within a vesicle.Glomerular basement membrane: The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of the kidney is the basal lamina layer of the glomerulus. The glomerular capillary endothelial cells, the GBM and the filtration slits between the podocytes perform the filtration function of the glomerulus, separating the blood in the capillaries from the filtrate that forms in Bowman's capsule.Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.Rab (G-protein): The Rab family of proteins is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins. Approximately 70 types of Rabs have now been identified in humans.Endocytosis: Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell ([+ cytosis]) by engulfing them in an [[energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Model lipid bilayer: A model lipid bilayer is any bilayer assembled in vitro, as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus. A model bilayer can be made with either synthetic or natural lipids.Mediated transportFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.Endosome: In biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway from the plasma membrane to the lysosome.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Munc-18: Munc-18 (an acronym for mammalian uncoordinated-18) proteins are the mammalian homologue of unc-18 proteins (which can be found in organisms such as the C. elegans) and are a member of the Sec1/Munc18-like (SM) protein family.ExocytosisMauna Kea Technologies: Mauna Kea Technologies is a global medical device company focused on leading innovation in endomicroscopy, the field of microscopic imaging during endoscopy procedures. The company researches, develops and markets tools to visualize, detect and rule out abnormalities including malignant and pre-malignant tumors or lesions in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary tracts.Organelle biogenesis: Organelle biogenesis is the biogenesis, or creation, of cellular organelles in cells. Organelle biogenesis includes the process by which cellular organelles are split between daughter cells during mitosis; this process is called organelle inheritance.LiposomeMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Lipid bilayer fusion: In membrane biology, fusion is the process by which two initially distinct lipid bilayers merge their hydrophobic cores, resulting in one interconnected structure. If this fusion proceeds completely through both leaflets of both bilayers, an aqueous bridge is formed and the internal contents of the two structures can mix.Synaptobrevin: B:52-75 I:28-95 A:28-88Synapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Detergent: A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions." These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxyl (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water.Food vacuole: The food vacuole, or digestive vacuole, is an organelle found in parasites that cause malaria. During the stage of the parasites' lifecycle where it resides within a human (or other mammalian) red blood cell, it is the site of haemoglobin digestion and the formation of the large haemozoin crystals that can be seen under a light microscope.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".SyntaxinMargaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Lysosome: A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body") is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells). Structurally and chemically, they are spherical vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris.Effective circulating volume: Effective Circulating Volume (ECV) is the volume of arterial blood (vascular extracellular fluid) effectively perfusing tissue. ECV is a dynamic quantity and not a measurable, distinct compartment.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Immunostaining: Immunostaining is a general term in biochemistry that applies to any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample. The term immunostaining was originally used to refer to the immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections, as first described by Albert Coons in 1941.Protoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Citrine (colour): Citrine is a colour], the most common reference for which is certain coloured varieties of [[quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as yellow, greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange.Fluorescent tag: In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. Generally, fluorescent tagging, or labeling, uses a reactive derivative of a fluorescent molecule known as a fluorophore.N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein: N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, also known as NSF or N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion proteins, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the NSF gene.Egg lecithinPlatelet lysate: Human Platelet Lysate (or hPL) is a substitute supplement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in experimental and clinical cell culture. It corresponds to a turbid, light-yellow liquid that is obtained from human blood platelets after freeze/thaw cycle(s).Transcellular transport: Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell. One classic example is the movement of glucose from the intestinal lumen to extracellular fluid by epithelial cells.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.New Zealand rabbitKIAA0895L: Uncharacterized protein KIAA0895-like also known as LOC653319, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0895L gene.
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