Intervertebral disc damage and spaceflight: Astronauts have expressed an increased incidence of back pain during spaceflight and herniated intervertebral discs (IVD) have been diagnosed upon return of Skylab and Shuttle spaceflight participants.Degenerative disc diseaseLumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.Cervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.DiscectomyCervical fractureStomochord: The stomochord is a flexible, hollow tube found in hemichordates. Stomochords arise in embryonic development as an outpocketing from the roof of the embryonic gut anterior to the pharynx.Traumatic spondylopathyClay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.DiscitisMechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Low back painInterbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Currarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.Proteoglycan: Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s).RadiculopathyScoliosis Research SocietySpondylolisthesisSpinal stenosis: Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit.HyperintensityLaminectomyExtracellular matrixMaverick (cigarette): Maverick is a brand of cigarettes owned by ITG Brands LLC, a subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco Company. Maverick cigarettes are made in the United States and Austria.PUR4: pUR4 is a recombinant peptide that is known to inhibit the polymerization of fibronectin in a number of cell types including fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Fibronectin is an essential component of the extracellular matrix that acts as a mediator between the extracellular matrix and the cells that reside within the matrix.Dynamic strain aging: Although sometimes dynamic strain aging is used interchangeably with the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect (or serrated yielding), dynamic strain aging refers specifically to the microscopic mechanism that induces the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect. This strengthening mechanism is related to solid-solution strengthening and has been observed in a variety of fcc and bcc substitutional and interstitial alloys, metalloids like silicon, and ordered intermetallics within specific ranges of temperature and strain rate.ChondrocyteSpinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.Peripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis: Degenerative Suspensory Ligament Desmitis commonly called DSLD, also known as Equine Systemic Proteoglycan Accumulation (ESPA) is a systemicLUSAS: LUSAS is a UK-based developer and supplier of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) application software products that bear the same name.TartrazineLordosisFacet joint injection: Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome.Facet Joint SyndromeRegeneration (biology): In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans.Old German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.Epidural space: In the spine, the epidural space (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater also known as "epidural cavity", "extradural space" or "peridural space") is an anatomic space that is the outermost part of the spinal canal. It is the space within the canal (formed by the surrounding vertebrae) lying outside the dura mater (which encloses the arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the spinal cord).Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Pars interarticularisSpondylosisTissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society is an international learned society. Its goal is the worldwide advancement of both the science and technology of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.Sacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.CollagenMilwaukee shoulder syndrome: Milwaukee shoulder syndrome (apatite-associated destructive arthritis) is a rheumatological condition similar to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD). It is associated with periarticular or intraarticular deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals.Medical radiographyTraction substation: A traction substation or traction current converter plant is an electrical substation that converts electric power from the form provided by the electrical power industry for public utility service to an appropriate voltage, current type and frequency to supply railways, trams (streetcars) or trolleybuses with traction current.Hyaline cartilageN-terminal telopeptide: In bone physiology, the N-terminal telopeptide (or more formally, amino-terminal collagen crosslinks, and known by the acronym NTX) is a [that can be used as a biomarker] to measure the rate of [[bone turnover. NTX can be measured in the urine (uNTX) or serum (serum NTX).Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.