Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Coles PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Riboprobe: Riboprobes are RNA probes that can be produced by in vitro transcription of cloned DNA inserted in a suitable plasmid downstream of a viral promoter. Some bacterial viruses code for their own RNA polymerases, which are highly specific for the viral promoters.Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Thermal cyclerChromogenic in situ hybridization: Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is a cytogenetic technique that combines the chromogenic signal detection method of immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques with in situ hybridization. It was developed around the year 2000 as an alternative to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of HER-2/neu oncogene amplification.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Allele-specific oligonucleotide: An allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) is a short piece of synthetic DNA complementary to the sequence of a variable target DNA. It acts as a probe for the presence of the target in a Southern blot assay or, more commonly, in the simpler Dot blot assay.Genetic imbalance: Genetic imbalance is to describe situation when the genome of a cell or organism has more copies of some genes than other genes due to chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy.Chromosome regionsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Regenerative amplification: In laser science, regenerative amplification is a process used to generate short but strong pulses of laser light. It is based on a pulse trapped in a laser resonator, which stays in there until it extracts all of the energy stored in the amplification medium.Oncogene: An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.Wilbur, Beth, editor.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Copy number analysis: Copy number analysis usually refers to the process of analyzing data produced by a test for DNA copy number variation in patient's sample. Such analysis helps detect chromosomal copy number variation that may cause or may increase risks of various critical disorders.Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.PRINS (gene): PRINS (psoriasis associated RNA induced by stress) is a long non-coding RNA. Its expression is induced by stress, and it may have a protective role in cells exposed to stress.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Library (biology): In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning. There are different types of DNA libraries, including cDNA libraries (formed from reverse-transcribed RNA), genomic libraries (formed from genomic DNA) and randomized mutant libraries (formed by de novo gene synthesis where alternative nucleotides or codons are incorporated).Polymethine: Polymethines are compounds made up from an odd number of methine groups (CH) bound together by alternating single and double bonds.Kachovski and Dekhtyar, Dyes and Pigments, 22 (1983) 83-97 Compounds made up from an even number of methine groups are known as polyenes.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?YjdF RNA motifQ-FISH: Quantitative Fluorescent in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) is a cytogenetic technique based on the traditional FISH methodology. In Q-FISH, the technique uses labelled (Cy3 or FITC) synthetic DNA mimics called peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotides to quantify target sequences in chromosomal DNA using fluorescent microscopy and analysis software.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Autoradiograph: An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g.Chromothripsis: Chromothripsis is the phenomenon by which up to thousands of clustered chromosomal rearrangements occur in a single event in localised and confined genomic regions in one or a few chromosomes, and is known to be involved in both cancer and congenital diseases. It occurs through one massive genomic rearrangement during a single catastrophic event in the cell's history.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.CS-BLASTImmunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Metaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Morphant: An organism which has been treated with a morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a morphant.Trisomy 9Trastuzumab