ImmunizationHyperimmune globulin: Hyperimmune globulin is similar to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) except that it is prepared from the plasma of donors with high titers of antibody against a specific organism or antigen. Some agents against which hyperimmune globulins are available include hepatitis B, rabies, tetanus toxin, varicella-zoster, etc.Universal Immunization Programme: Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areasDPT vaccineVaccinationCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Reverse vaccinology: Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics, pioneered by Rino Rappuoli and first used against Serogroup B meningococcus.Pizza et al.Naked DNA: Naked DNA is histone-free DNA that is passed from cell to cell during a gene transfer process called transformation or transfection. In transformation, purified or naked DNA is taken up by the recipient cell which will give the recipient cell a new characteristic or phenotype.Nasal administrationImmunologic adjuvant: In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word “adjuvant” comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid.Passive immunity: Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies, from one individual to another. Passive immunity can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and can also be induced artificially, when high levels of human (or horse) antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune through blood products that contain antibodies like immune globulin.List of GlaxoSmithKline products: This is a list of products manufactured by the multinational pharmaceutical, biologics, vaccines and consumer healthcare company GlaxoSmithKline.Flu season: Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of influenza (flu). The season occurs during the cold half of the year in each hemisphere.TetanusGlobal Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Measles hemagglutinin: Measles hemagglutinin is a hemagglutinin produced by measles virus.Immunity (medical): In biology, immunity is the balanced state of having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.AS04: AS04 (Aka. "Adjuvant System 04") is a trade name for combination of adjuvants used in various vaccine product by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), in particular the Fendrix Hepatitis B vaccine.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Cell-mediated immunity: Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Primary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Pertussis vaccineTwinrixMegathura crenulata: Megathura crenulata, common name the great keyhole limpet or giant keyhole limpet, is a northeast Pacific species of limpet in the family Fissurellidae. Rosenberg, G.Injection site reaction: Injection site reactions are allergic reactions that result in cutaneous necrosis that may occur at sites of medication injection, typically presenting in one of two forms, (1) those associated with intravenous infusion or (2) those related to intramuscular injection.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).AB5 toxin: The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. One component is known as the A subunit, and the remaining five components make up the B subunit.HIV Vaccine Trials Network: The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and community educators for the purpose of conducting clinical trials seeking a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Collaboratively, research professionals and laypeople review potential vaccines for safety, immune response, and efficacy.Freund: __NOTOC__PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Peptide vaccine: A peptide vaccine is any peptide which serves to immunize an organism against a pathogen. Peptide vaccine are often synthetic and mimic naturally occurring proteins from pathogens.New Zealand rabbitGreyfriars, King's Lynn: Greyfriars, King's Lynn was a Franciscan friary in Norfolk, England. The tower, known as Greyfriars Tower () survives.Conjugate vaccine: A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier to the attached antigen.Rubella vaccineDiphtheritic stomatitis: Diphtheritic stomatitis is a recently discovered disease and has thus far been reported only in Yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes). Its symptoms are similar to human diphtheria and is characterized by infecteous lesions in the mouth area that impede swallowing and cause respiratory troubles.PoliomyelitisOsmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Gene gunMonoclonal antibody therapySmokefree Environments Amendment Act 2003: The Smokefree Environments Amendment Bill was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand on 3 December 2003. The smoking ban legislation calls for progressive introduction of various clauses to totally ban smoking in all workplaces including offices, clubs, pubs, restaurants, airports, schools etc.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.CTL-mediated cytotoxicityPneumococcal vaccine: A pneumococcal vaccine is a vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae.Ovalbumin: Ovalbumin (abbreviated OVA) is the main protein found in egg white, making up 60-65% of the total protein. Ovalbumin displays sequence and three-dimensional homology to the serpin superfamily, but unlike most serpins it is not a serine protease inhibitor.Gustav GaudernackSubcutaneous injectionHemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.SeroconversionKalinite: Kalinite is a mineral composed of hydrated potassium aluminium sulfate (a type of alum). It is a fibrous monoclinic alum, distinct from isometric potassium alum,American Mineralogist (1923) 8:15 named in 1868.CcdA/CcdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system: The CcdA/CCdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two proteins, one a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation (toxin) and the other its specific antidote (antitoxin). These systems preferentially guarantee growth of plasmid-carrying daughter cells in a bacterial population by killing newborn bacteria that have not inherited a plasmid copy at cell division (post-segregational killing).Active immunotherapy: Active immunotherapy is a type of immunotherapy that attempts to stimulate the host's intrinsic immune response to a disease e.g.
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