Cell-mediated immunity: Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.Passive immunity: Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies, from one individual to another. Passive immunity can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and can also be induced artificially, when high levels of human (or horse) antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune through blood products that contain antibodies like immune globulin.Herd immunityAcute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia: Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia is an exceedingly rare form of leukemia. This form of leukemia represents only about 0.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.VaccinationProinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.Immunologic adjuvant: In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word “adjuvant” comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Naked DNA: Naked DNA is histone-free DNA that is passed from cell to cell during a gene transfer process called transformation or transfection. In transformation, purified or naked DNA is taken up by the recipient cell which will give the recipient cell a new characteristic or phenotype.Gustav GaudernackCTL-mediated cytotoxicityPattern recognition receptor: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are a primitive part of the immune system. They are proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with cell components that are released during cell damage or death.Global Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Toll-like receptor 11: Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the gene TLR11. TLR11 belongs to the toll-like receptor (TLR) family and the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor superfamily.Reverse vaccinology: Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics, pioneered by Rino Rappuoli and first used against Serogroup B meningococcus.Pizza et al.Nasal administrationTingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Immunomics: Immunomics is the study of immune system regulation and response to pathogens using genome-wide approaches. With the rise of genomic and proteomic technologies, scientists have been able to visualize biological networks and infer interrelationships between genes and/or proteins; recently, these technologies have been used to help better understand how the immune system functions and how it is regulated.KLRD1: CD94 (Cluster of Differentiation 94), also known as killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily D, member 1 (KLRD1) is a human gene.Coles PhillipsEva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Bacteriocin: Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s). They are phenomenologically analogous to yeast and paramecium killing factors, and are structurally, functionally, and ecologically diverse.ImmunotherapyGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Escheriosome: Escheriosomes are liposomes prepared from polar lipids extracted from Escherichia coli. Such kinds of delivery vehicles have been shown to elicit high cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Lars Larsen Forsæth: Lars Larsen Forsæth (baptized 9 December 1759 – 12 February 1839) was a Norwegian farmer who served as a representative at the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. Tallak Lindstøl: Stortinget og Statsraadet, Kristiania, 1914.Intraepithelial lymphocyte: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming.Antigen processing: Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways.Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Listeria monocytogenes: Listeria monocytogenes is the bacterium that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Suppressor-inducer T cell: Suppressor-inducer T cells are a specific subset of CD4+ T helper cells that "induce" CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to become "suppressor" cells. Suppressor T cells are also known as CD25+–Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (nTregs), and reduce inflammation.Immunotransplant: Immunotransplant is a maneuver used to make vaccines more powerful. It refers to the process of infusing vaccine-primed T lymphocytes into lymphodepleted recipients for the purpose of enhancing the proliferation and function of those T cells and increasing immune protection induced by that vaccine.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingColicin: A colicin is a type of bacteriocin produced by and toxic to some strains of Escherichia coli.* Feldgarden, M.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Peptide vaccine: A peptide vaccine is any peptide which serves to immunize an organism against a pathogen. Peptide vaccine are often synthetic and mimic naturally occurring proteins from pathogens.T helper 3 cell: T helper 3 cells are a type of T helper cell, lymphocytes involved in regulating the immune response.T helper cells in general mediate the immune response by secreting cytokines and interacting with B-cells to enhance or inhibit their activity.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Flu season: Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of influenza (flu). The season occurs during the cold half of the year in each hemisphere.
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