Immunomics: Immunomics is the study of immune system regulation and response to pathogens using genome-wide approaches. With the rise of genomic and proteomic technologies, scientists have been able to visualize biological networks and infer interrelationships between genes and/or proteins; recently, these technologies have been used to help better understand how the immune system functions and how it is regulated.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.ImmunizationHyperimmune globulin: Hyperimmune globulin is similar to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) except that it is prepared from the plasma of donors with high titers of antibody against a specific organism or antigen. Some agents against which hyperimmune globulins are available include hepatitis B, rabies, tetanus toxin, varicella-zoster, etc.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8New Zealand rabbitComplement deficiencyEpitope: An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells. For example, the epitope is the specific piece of the antigen that an antibody binds to.Monoclonal antibody therapyAmoebic liver abscessPrimary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.VaccinationImmunization during pregnancy: Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period.SeroconversionColes PhillipsRaji cell: Raji cell line is the first continuous human cell line from hematopoietic origin. The cell lines produce an unusual strain of Epstein-Barr virus which will both transform cord blood lymphocytes and induce early antigens in Raji cells.Phagocytosis: In cell biology, phagocytosis ( (phagein) |to devour||, (kytos) |cell||-osis|process}}) is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome. Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler, and later studied by Élie Metchnikoff.Hemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Bacterial outer membraneProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Pregnancy-associated malaria: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or placental malaria is a presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus. PAM is caused primarily by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four species of malaria-causing parasites that infect humans.Epitope mapping: Epitope mapping is the process of experimentally identifying the binding sites, or ‘epitopes’, of antibodies on their target antigens. Identification and characterization of the binding sites of antibodies can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics.Immunologic adjuvant: In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word “adjuvant” comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid.Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society: The Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society (CTHS) is an organization headquartered in Toronto, Canada that was founded in 1906 to assist Thoroughbred horse breeders. Since 1982, there have been provincial divisions in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan.Entamoeba histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates, E.Radial immunodiffusion: Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. Antibody is incorporated into a medium such as an agar gel.Cell-mediated immunity: Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Microneme: Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane.Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Autoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.Pseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Proinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Autologous immune enhancement therapy: Autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) is a treatment method in which immune cells are taken out from the patient's body which are cultured and processed to activate them until their resistance to cancer is strengthened and then the cells are put back in the body. The cells, antibodies, and organs of the immune system work to protect and defend the body against not only tumor cells but also bacteria or viruses.Erythrocrine: Erythrocrine describes red blood cell or erythrocyte for production and release of signaling molecules. The term “erythrocrine“ was coined by Song et al.A. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.OdulimomabGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia: Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia is an exceedingly rare form of leukemia. This form of leukemia represents only about 0.SEA Native Peptide LigationSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.
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