HypothyroidismCongenital hypothyroidismThyrotropic cellThyroid hormone: The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model).HyperthyroidismFollicular cellReverse triiodothyroninePropylthiouracilThyroid dysgenesis: Thyroid agenesis (or thyroid dysgenesis) is a cause of congenital hypothyroidism where the thyroid is missing, ectopic, or severely underdeveloped.GoitreAutoimmune thyroiditisMyxedemaIodine deficiencyIodothyronine deiodinase: Iodothyronine deiodinases ( and ) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. Thyroxine (T4), the precursor of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) is transformed into T3 by deiodinase activity.Riedel's thyroiditisHashimoto's encephalopathy: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is a rare autoimmune disease associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It was first described in 1966.Thyroglobulin: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin protein accounts for approximately half of the protein content of the thyroid gland.Symptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.ThyroidectomyHormone replacement therapy (menopause)TRH stimulation test: Prior to the availability of sensitive TSH assays, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)Autoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.ATC code H03: ==H03A Thyroid preparations==BMC Endocrine Disorders: BMC Endocrine Disorders is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.References ==Sheehan's syndromeSodium perchlorateTriiodideHypophysitis: Hypophysitis refers to an inflammation of the pituitary gland. Hypophysitis is rare and not fully understood.Toxic nodular goiterGalactorrheaEuthyroid sick syndromeRhabdomyolysisPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.