Atmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Hydrogen gas porosity: Hydrogen gas porosity is an aluminium casting defect under the form of a porosity or void in an aluminium casting caused by a high level of hydrogen gas (H2) dissolved in the aluminium at liquid phase. Because the solubility of hydrogen in solid aluminium is much smaller than in liquid aluminium, when the aluminium freezes, the dissolved hydrogen gas creates porosity in solid aluminium.Vaporized hydrogen peroxide: Vaporized hydrogen peroxide — also known as hydrogen peroxide vapor, HPV, and by the trademarked name VHP — is a vapor form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with applications as a low-temperature antimicrobial vapor used to decontaminate enclosed and sealed areas such as laboratory workstations, isolation and pass-through rooms, and even aircraft interiors.Ice Ih: [showing details of an ice cube under magnification. Ice Ih is the form of ice commonly seen on Earth.Potassium hydrosulfideMitochondrial ROS: Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS or mROS) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced by mitochondria. Generation of mitochondrial ROS mainly takes place at the electron transport chain located on the inner mitochondrial membrane during the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).Methylococcaceae: The Methylococcaceae are a family of bacteria that obtain their carbon and energy from methane, called methanotrophs..Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase: Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase (, linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase, 5,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 5,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme), PpoA) is an enzyme with system name linoleate:oxygen (8R)-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionList of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsMethanopyrus: In taxonomy, Methanopyrus is a genus of the Methanopyraceae.See the NCBI webpage on Methanopyrus.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Coles PhillipsAlcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Treadmill: A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines, to harness the power of animals or humans to do work, often a type of mill that was operated by a person or animal treading steps of a treadwheel to grind grain.Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule like 1: Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule like 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the DSCAML1 gene.Pulmonary gas pressures: The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are:Reaction coordinateMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Myocytolysis: Myocytolysis refers to a degenerative change (often reversible) that occurs to myocytes upon myocardial strain. This phenomenon tends to occur when neighboring cardiac muscle loses its ability to contract (i.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Dropping mercury electrode: The dropping mercury electrode (DME) is a working electrode made of mercury and used in polarography. Experiments run with mercury electrodes are referred to as forms of polarography even if the experiments are identical or very similar to a corresponding voltammetry experiment which uses solid working electrodes.Photoinhibition: Photoinhibition is light-induced reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of a plant, alga, or cyanobacterium. Photosystem II (PSII) is more sensitive to light than the rest of the photosynthetic machinery, and most researchers define the term as light-induced damage to PSII.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Portable oxygen concentratorMethanobactin: Methanobactin (mb) is a class of Mcopper-binding and reducing uchromophoric peptides initially identified in the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath - and later in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b - during the isolation of the membrane-associated or particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). It is thought to be secreted to the extracellular media to recruit copper, a critical component of methane monooxygenase, the first enzyme in the series that catalyzes the oxidation of methane into methanol.Biot's respiration: Biot's respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.Glucose transporterHomeothermy: Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (Greek: homoios = "similar", thermē = "heat").Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Butyl acetate (disambiguation): Butyl acetate most often refers to n-butyl acetate. However, there are other isomers that may be considered to be butyl acetates:Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.PentachloroethaneObligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.DimefoxMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Kennel clubOutline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Methoxide: Methoxides are organic salts and the simplest alkoxides. Sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide have widespread use, though other metal-cation variants such as lithium methoxide, rubidium methoxide, caesium methoxide, and francium methoxide exist as well.MethylocystaceaeCardiac function curve: A cardiac function curve is a graph showing the relationship between right atrial pressure (x-axis) and cardiac output (y-axis).Hypoxic hypoxia: Hypoxic hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen.Potassium selective electrode: Potassium selective electrodes are a type of ion selective electrode used in biochemical and biophysical research, where measurements of potassium concentration in an aqueous solution are required, usually on a real time basis.Coronary perfusion pressure: Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) refers to the pressure gradient that drives coronary blood pressure, meaning the difference between the diastolic aortic pressure and the right atrial diastolic pressure. It is a term used mainly in research concerning cardiac arrest.Lactic acid fermentationCatalase: Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals). It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.Shivering: Shivering (also called rigors or shuddering) is a bodily function in response to early hypothermia or just feeling cold in warm-blooded animals. When the core body temperature drops, the shivering reflex is triggered to maintain homeostasis.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.THC-O-phosphateSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Volumetric heat capacity: Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).Ammonium cyanideConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Electron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.P/O ratio: The Phosphate/Oxygen Ratio, or P/O Ratio, refers to the amount of ATP produced from the movement of two electrons through a defined electron transport chain, donated by reduction of an oxygen atom.Garrett & Grisham 2010, p.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.TroloxPhase problem: In physics the phase problem is the name given to the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement. The name itself comes from the field of x-ray crystallography, where the phase problem has to be solved for the determination of a structure from diffraction data.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Free-radical reaction: A free-radical reaction is any chemical reaction involving free radicals. This reaction type is abundant in organic reactions.Gas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Physical strength: Strength (physics)}}Achy Breaky HeartSports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Potassium superoxideSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Anaerobic glycolysis: Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes.Hemoglobin, alpha 2: Hemoglobin, alpha 2 also known as HBA2 is a gene that in humans codes for the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin.Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.