Iron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Glucose transporterIndex of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.DMT1: The divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), also known as natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2 (NRAMP 2), and divalent cation transporter 1 (DCT1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC11A2 (solute carrier family 11, member 2) gene. DMT1 represents a large family of orthologous metal ion transporter proteins that are highly conserved from bacteria to humans.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GISilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Beta Cells: Beta cells are heavily engaged in the synthesis and secretion of insulin. They are therefore particularly sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response(UPR).Coles PhillipsLeptinClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.CholesterolMediated transportZinc toxicityDeletion (genetics)Keratinocyte: A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.Copper toxicityTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingOrphan receptor: An orphan receptor is an apparent receptor that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ligand has not yet been identified. If a ligand for an orphan receptor is later discovered, the receptor is referred to as an "adopted orphan".Autophagy: Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Greek auto-, "self" and phagein, "to eat"), is the natural, destructive mechanism that disassembles, through a regulated process, unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Calcium encodingProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Mitochondrial ROS: Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS or mROS) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced by mitochondria. Generation of mitochondrial ROS mainly takes place at the electron transport chain located on the inner mitochondrial membrane during the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Osmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.Renal stem cell: Renal stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent stem cells which are able to give rise to all the cell types of the kidney. It is involved in the homeostasis and repair of the kidney, and holds therapeutic potential for treatment of kidney failure.Cell membraneDNA-binding proteinGAI (Arabidopsis thaliana gene)Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Outline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:RNAi-Based Identification System and interference of Specific Cancer Cells: A “classifier” was created to classify cells by identifying specific characteristics of Cervical Cancer. These characteristics were consistent with HeLa cells, which served as the target cell line for cell death.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Squamous epithelial cell: In anatomy, squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.FOXA2: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta (HNF-3B), also known as forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) or transcription factor 3B (TCF-3B) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXA2 gene.Antimicrobial peptides: Antimicrobial peptides, also called "host defense peptides" are part of the innate immune response found among all classes of life. Fundamental differences exist between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that may represent targets for antimicrobial peptides.
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