Influenza Research Database: The Influenza Research Database (IRD)IRD Influenza Research Database BRCSquires, R.B.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Flu season: Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of influenza (flu). The season occurs during the cold half of the year in each hemisphere.Influenza A virus subtype H5N1: Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as avian influenza ("bird flu").Global spread of H5N1 in 2006: The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.Tumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Influvac: Influvac is a sub-unit vaccine produced and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. It contains inactivated purified surface fragments (sub-units) from the three different strains of the influenza virus (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and Influenza B Virus) that are selected and distributed by the World Health Organization, on the basis of their latest recommendations.Neuraminidase inhibitor: Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of drugs which block the neuraminidase enzyme. They are commonly used as antiviral drugs because they block the function of viral neuraminidases of the influenza virus, by preventing its reproduction by budding from the host cell.Newmarket, Suffolk: Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk, approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London. It is generally considered the birthplace and global centre of thoroughbred horse racing and a potential World Heritage Site.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Pandemic: A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic.Coles PhillipsTadorninae: The Tadorninae is the shelduck-sheldgoose subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the geese and swans.Ferret: The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is the domesticated form of the European polecat, a mammal belonging to the same genus as the weasel, Mustela of the family Mustelidae.Harris & Yalden 2008, pp.Kennel clubOseltamivirGeneralized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.CD46: CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. CD46 is an inhibitory complement receptor.Chicken as biological research model: Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their eggs have been used extensively as research models throughout the history of biology. Today they continue to serve as an important model for normal human biology as well as pathological disease processes.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.British Poultry Standard: [Poultry Standard.png|thumb|right|The front cover of the 6th Edition of the British Poultry Standards.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Hemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.VaccinationZanamivirSialic acid: Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone.Haemagglutination activity domain: In molecular biology, the haemagglutination activity domain is a conserved protein domain found near the N terminus of a number of large, repetitive bacterial proteins, including many proteins of over 2500 amino acids. A number of the members of this family have been designated adhesins, filamentous haemagglutinins, haem/haemopexin-binding protein, etc.Influenza virus matrix protein 2: Matrix protein 2 of Influenza virus is a single-spanning transmembrane protein. It is expressed on the infected cell surface and incorporated into virions where it is a minor component.CD33: CD33 or Siglec-3 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on cells of myeloid lineage. It is usually considered myeloid-specific, but it can also be found on some lymphoid cells.Influenza virus nucleoprotein: Influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a structural protein which encapsidates the negative strand viral RNA. NP is one of the main determinants of species specificity.AmantadineGlycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.Lipid bilayer fusion: In membrane biology, fusion is the process by which two initially distinct lipid bilayers merge their hydrophobic cores, resulting in one interconnected structure. If this fusion proceeds completely through both leaflets of both bilayers, an aqueous bridge is formed and the internal contents of the two structures can mix.Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Bokhara Trumpeter: The Bokhara Trumpeter is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. Bokhara Trumpeters, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon (Columba livia).Global Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Pseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Defective interfering particle: In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. DIPs are derived from and associated with their parent virus, and particles are classed as DIPs if they are rendered non-infectious due to at least one essential gene of the virus being lost or severely damaged as a result of the defection.PSI-6130Viral pneumoniaStem bromelain: Stem bromelain (SBM) (EC 3.4.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Sindbis virusClinical virology: Clinical or medical virology is a branch of medicine (more particularly of clinical pathology) which consists in isolating and/or in characterising one or several viruses responsible for some human pathologies by various direct or indirect techniques (cellular Cultures, serologies, biochemistry, molecular biology). It also consists in proving the absence of resistance of viruses in treatment antiviral by viral genome sequencing to adapt antiviral therapeutics at best.Vesicular stomatitis virus: Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) (often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs.