Hemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Haemagglutination activity domain: In molecular biology, the haemagglutination activity domain is a conserved protein domain found near the N terminus of a number of large, repetitive bacterial proteins, including many proteins of over 2500 amino acids. A number of the members of this family have been designated adhesins, filamentous haemagglutinins, haem/haemopexin-binding protein, etc.Ellagitannin: The ellagitannins are a diverse class of hydrolyzable tannins, a type of polyphenol formed primarily from the oxidative linkage of galloyl groups in 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloyl glucose. Ellagitannins differ from gallotannins, in that their galloyl groups are linked through C-C bonds, whereas the galloyl groups in gallotannins are linked by depside bonds.Treponematosis: Treponematosis is a term used to collectively or individually describe any of the diseases caused by the bacterial species Treponema. There are four subspecies described which cause the following diseases:TanninErythrocrine: Erythrocrine describes red blood cell or erythrocyte for production and release of signaling molecules. The term “erythrocrine“ was coined by Song et al.Direct agglutination test: A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Radial immunodiffusion: Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. Antibody is incorporated into a medium such as an agar gel.Pasteurella dagmatis: Pasteurella dagmatis is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Bacteria from this family cause zoonotic infections in humans.TyphusCounterimmunoelectrophoresis: A laboratory technique used to evaluate the binding of an antibody to its antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis is similar to immunodiffusion, but with the addition of an applied electrical field across the diffusion medium, usually an agar or polyacrylamide gel.Treponema carateum: Treponema carateum is a species of spirochete bacteria in the genus Treponema.SeroconversionPlaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.New Zealand rabbitPrimary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Rubella virus: Rubella virus (RuV) is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy.A. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Immunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Flu season: Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of influenza (flu). The season occurs during the cold half of the year in each hemisphere.Pilin: Pilin refers to a class of fibrous proteins that are found in pilus structures in bacteria. Bacterial pili are used in the exchange of genetic material during bacterial conjugation, while a shorter type of appendages also made up of pilin, called fimbriae, are used as a cell adhesion mechanism.Goose egg addling: Goose egg “addling” is a wildlife management method of population control for Canada geese and other bird species. The process of addling involves temporarily removing fertilized eggs from the nest, testing for embryo development, terminating embryo development, and placing the egg back in the nest.Rubellatoma rubella: Rubellatoma rubella is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.