GuanidineDenaturation midpoint: Assuming two-state protein folding, denaturation midpoint is defined as that temperature (Tm) or denaturant concentration (Cm) at which both the folded and unfolded states are equally populated at equilibrium. Tm is often determined using a thermal shift assay.X-ray magnetic circular dichroismKnotted protein: Knotted proteins are proteins whose backbones entangle themselves in a knot. One can imagine pulling a protein chain from both termini, as though pulling a string from both ends.Spectrofluorometer: A spectrofluorometer is an instrument which takes advantage of fluorescent properties of some compounds in order to provide information regarding their concentration and chemical environment in a sample. A certain excitation wavelength is selected, and the emission is observed either at a single wavelength, or a scan is performed to record the intensity versus wavelength, also called an emission spectra.Urea reduction ratio: For the Scottish river see: Urr WaterDatabase of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Size-exclusion chromatography: Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight. It is usually applied to large molecules or macromolecular complexes such as proteins and industrial polymers.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Standard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.BD1018: BD1018 or (S)-2-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine is a selective sigma receptor ligand, with a reported binding affinity of Ki = 5 ± 0.7 nM for the sigma-1 receptor and approximately 10 times selectivity over the sigma-2 receptor.Potassium lauryl sulfateFishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.S-tag: S-tag is the name of an oligopeptide derived from pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). If RNase A is digested with subtilisin, a single peptide bond is cleaved, but the resulting two products remain weakly bound to each other and the protein, called ribonuclease S, remains active although each of the two products alone shows no enzymatic activity.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.DsbC protein family: DsbC (Disulfide bond C) is a prokaryotic disulfide bond isomerase. The formation of native disulfide bonds play an important role in the proper folding of proteins and stabilize tertiary structures of the protein.Tryptophan operon leaderColes PhillipsLead(II) thiocyanateList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Phosphagen: The phosphagens are energy storage compounds, also known as high-energy phosphate compounds, are chiefly found in muscular tissue in animals. They allow a high-energy phosphate pool to be maintained in a concentration range, which, if it all were ATP, would create problems due to the ATP consuming reactions in these tissues.Proteoglycan: Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s).Billy BartyDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Transmembrane domain: Transmembrane segment usually denotes a single transmembrane alpha helix of a transmembrane protein, also known as an integral protein.http://www.Nitrobenzoic acid: Nitrobenzoic acids are derivatives of benzoic acid. Two are commercially important.Reaction coordinateGuanoxabenzProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.AmthaminePempidinePerchloromethyl mercaptanRadial immunodiffusion: Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. Antibody is incorporated into a medium such as an agar gel.C4H7N3O3Sodium bromideEthyl groupNew Zealand rabbitSolubility: Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution.PhenforminCarbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.CimetidineCyanamideLysozyme: Lysozymes, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase, are glycoside hydrolases. These are enzymes () that damage bacterial cell walls by catalyzing hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in a peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrins.Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.