Symptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.Follicular cellAutoimmune thyroiditisPropylthiouracilInfiltrative ophthalmopathy: Infiltrative ophthalmopathy is found in Graves disease and resembles exophthalmos, except that the blurry or double vision is acquired because of weakness in the ocular muscles of the eye. In addition, there is no known correlation with the patient's thyroid levels.Hashimoto's encephalopathy: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is a rare autoimmune disease associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It was first described in 1966.ExophthalmosSubacute thyroiditisMyxedemaRiedel's thyroiditisThyrotropic cellAutoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.HyperthyroidismThyroidectomyToxic nodular goiterThyroglobulin: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin protein accounts for approximately half of the protein content of the thyroid gland.Reverse triiodothyronineGoitreThyroid hormone: The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model).Iodothyronine deiodinase: Iodothyronine deiodinases ( and ) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. Thyroxine (T4), the precursor of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) is transformed into T3 by deiodinase activity.HypothyroidismSuperior orbital fissure: The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124): This is a sub-part (blood proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.Thyroid cancerIodine deficiencySodium pertechnetateAutoimmune diseaseNeuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Inferior rectus muscle: The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.Thyroid dysgenesis: Thyroid agenesis (or thyroid dysgenesis) is a cause of congenital hypothyroidism where the thyroid is missing, ectopic, or severely underdeveloped.Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia: Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting intestinal magnesium absorption. Decreased intestinal magnesium reabsorption and the resulting decrease in serum magnesium levels is believed to cause lowered parathyroid hormone (PTH) output by the parathyroid gland.
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