CisternaEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Beta Cells: Beta cells are heavily engaged in the synthesis and secretion of insulin. They are therefore particularly sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response(UPR).Thiamine pyrophosphatase: Thiamine pyrophosphatase is an enzyme which cleaves thiamine pyrophosphate.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Coatomer: The coatomer is a protein complex that coats membrane-bound transport vesicles. Three types of coatomers are known:Simon et al.Mediated transportMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.CyclopentaneGlucosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase: Glucosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (, lactosylceramide synthase, uridine diphosphate-galactose:glucosyl ceramide beta 1-4 galactosyltransferase, UDP-Gal:glucosylceramide beta1->4galactosyltransferase, GalT-2, UDP-galactose:beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-alpha-D-galactose:beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionVesicular transport protein: A vesicular transport protein, or vesicular transporter, is a membrane protein that regulates or facilitates the movement of specific molecules (transporter substrates) across a vesicular membrane. As a result, vesicular transporters govern the concentration of molecules within a vesicle.Effective circulating volume: Effective Circulating Volume (ECV) is the volume of arterial blood (vascular extracellular fluid) effectively perfusing tissue. ECV is a dynamic quantity and not a measurable, distinct compartment.Golgi alpha-mannosidase II: Golgi α-mannosidase II is a key enzyme involved in N-linked Glycan processing. It is inhibited by small molecule swainsonine.Coles PhillipsGRIP domain: In molecular biology, the GRIP domain is a conserved protein domain. The GRIP (golgin-97, RanBP2alpha, Imh1p and p230/golgin-245) domain is found in many large coiled-coil proteins.Cell membraneUridine diphosphate galactoseGlycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.Immunostaining: Immunostaining is a general term in biochemistry that applies to any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample. The term immunostaining was originally used to refer to the immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections, as first described by Albert Coons in 1941.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.NocodazoleDiazole: Diazole refers to either one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C3H4N2, having a five-membered ring consisting of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms.Diazole, merriam-webster.Lysosome: A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body") is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells). Structurally and chemically, they are spherical vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris.Osmium tetroxideCell fractionation: Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets from a larger population of cells.Rab (G-protein): The Rab family of proteins is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins. Approximately 70 types of Rabs have now been identified in humans.Organelle biogenesis: Organelle biogenesis is the biogenesis, or creation, of cellular organelles in cells. Organelle biogenesis includes the process by which cellular organelles are split between daughter cells during mitosis; this process is called organelle inheritance.Food vacuole: The food vacuole, or digestive vacuole, is an organelle found in parasites that cause malaria. During the stage of the parasites' lifecycle where it resides within a human (or other mammalian) red blood cell, it is the site of haemoglobin digestion and the formation of the large haemozoin crystals that can be seen under a light microscope.Endosome: In biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway from the plasma membrane to the lysosome.Microtubule: Microtubules ([+ tube] + [are a component of the [[cytoskeleton], found throughout the [[cytoplasm. These tubular polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.KIAA0895L: Uncharacterized protein KIAA0895-like also known as LOC653319, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0895L gene.Synapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Protein synthesis inhibitor: A protein synthesis inhibitor is a substance that stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins.Endocytosis: Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell ([+ cytosis]) by engulfing them in an [[energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.UDP-D-xylose:beta-D-glucoside alpha-1,3-D-xylosyltransferase: UDP-D-xylose:beta-D-glucoside alpha-1,3-D-xylosyltransferase (, beta-glucoside alpha-1,3-xylosyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-alpha-D-xylose:beta-D-glucoside 3-alpha-D-xylosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Protoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.CeramideLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GICitrine (colour): Citrine is a colour], the most common reference for which is certain coloured varieties of [[quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as yellow, greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange.Lactosylceramide: Lactosylceramide is a type of ceramide incorporating lactose.Aritox: The term aritox occurs in names of monoclonal antibodies and indicates that they are linked to an A chain of the ricin protein.Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) is an apoplastic enzyme found across the plant kingdom. The enzyme catalyzes the endotransglucosylation of two xyloglucan polysaccharides, effectively 'stitching' them together.Mauna Kea Technologies: Mauna Kea Technologies is a global medical device company focused on leading innovation in endomicroscopy, the field of microscopic imaging during endoscopy procedures. The company researches, develops and markets tools to visualize, detect and rule out abnormalities including malignant and pre-malignant tumors or lesions in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary tracts.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Beta-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase: Beta-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-acetyllactosaminide beta1->3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, poly-N-acetyllactosamine extension enzyme, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionEndoglycosidase H: The enzyme Endoglycosidase H (, Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, N,N'-diacetylchitobiosyl beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-beta-N-acetylglucosamidase, di-N-acetylchitobiosyl beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, endo-beta-acetylglucosaminidase, endo-beta-(1->4)-N-acetylglucosaminidase, mannosyl-glycoprotein 1,4-N-acetamidodeoxy-beta-D-glycohydrolase, endoglycosidase S, endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, endo-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase D, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase L, glycopeptide-D-mannosyl-4-N-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)2-asparagine 1,4-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminohydrolase, endoglycosidase H) is an enzyme with system name glycopeptide-D-mannosyl-N4-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)2-asparagine 1,4-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminohydrolase. It is a highly specific endoglycosidase which cleaves asparagine-linked mannose rich oligosaccharides, but not highly processed complex oligosaccharidesSpecific granule: Specific granules are secretory vesicles found exclusively in cells of the immune system called granulocytes.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Sphingomyelin: Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons. It usually consists of phosphocholine and ceramide, or a phosphoethanolamine head group; therefore, sphingomyelins can also be classified as sphingophospholipids.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP or TRAPase), also called acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant (ACP5), is a glycosylated monomeric metalloprotein enzyme expressed in mammals. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35kDa, a basic isoelectric point (7.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Bookmarking: Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.Pseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide b-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase: N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (, uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-acetylneuraminyl(alpha2->3)galactosyl(beta1->4)glucosyl beta1->4-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-alpha-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetylneuraminyl-(2->3)-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 4-beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionGating signal: A gating signal is a digital signal or pulse (sometimes called a "trigger") that provides a time window so that a particular event or signal from among many will be selected and others will be eliminated or discarded.