Glycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.Congenital disorder of glycosylationAsparagineTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Coles PhillipsN-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.KIAA0895L: Uncharacterized protein KIAA0895-like also known as LOC653319, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0895L gene.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.Ultrasensitivity: In molecular biology, ultrasensitivity describes an output response that is more sensitive to stimulus change than the hyperbolic Michaelis-Menten response. Ultrasensitivity is one of the biochemical switches in the cell cycle and has been implicated in a number of important cellular events, including exiting G2 cell cycle arrests in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a stage to which the cell or organism would not want to return.Mannose 6-phosphateXyloglucan endotransglucosylase: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) is an apoplastic enzyme found across the plant kingdom. The enzyme catalyzes the endotransglucosylation of two xyloglucan polysaccharides, effectively 'stitching' them together.Dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase: Dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase (, ALG12, ALG12 mannosyltransferase, ALG12 alpha1,6mannosyltransferase, dolichyl-P-mannose:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase, dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl alpha6-mannosyltransferase, EBS4, Dol-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-Dol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name dolichyl beta-D-mannosyl phosphate:D-Man-alpha-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-(D-Man-alpha-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-D-Man-alpha-(1->6))-D-Man-beta-(1->4)-D-GlcNAc-beta-(1->4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionGlycobiology: Defined in the narrowest sense, glycobiology is the study of the structure, biosynthesis, and biology of saccharides (sugar chains or glycans) that are widely distributed in nature. Sugars or saccharides are essential components of all living things and aspects of the various roles they play in biology are researched in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological fields.Beta-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase: Beta-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-acetyllactosaminide beta1->3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, poly-N-acetyllactosamine extension enzyme, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide beta-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionGlucosamineList of glycoside hydrolase families: Glycoside hydrolases (O-Glycosyl hydrolases) are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycosyl hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of numerous different families.Leguminous lectin family: In molecular biology, the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins.Endoglycosidase H: The enzyme Endoglycosidase H (, Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, N,N'-diacetylchitobiosyl beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-beta-N-acetylglucosamidase, di-N-acetylchitobiosyl beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, endo-beta-acetylglucosaminidase, endo-beta-(1->4)-N-acetylglucosaminidase, mannosyl-glycoprotein 1,4-N-acetamidodeoxy-beta-D-glycohydrolase, endoglycosidase S, endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, endo-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase D, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase L, glycopeptide-D-mannosyl-4-N-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)2-asparagine 1,4-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminohydrolase, endoglycosidase H) is an enzyme with system name glycopeptide-D-mannosyl-N4-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)2-asparagine 1,4-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminohydrolase. It is a highly specific endoglycosidase which cleaves asparagine-linked mannose rich oligosaccharides, but not highly processed complex oligosaccharidesCD33: CD33 or Siglec-3 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on cells of myeloid lineage. It is usually considered myeloid-specific, but it can also be found on some lymphoid cells.Swainsona galegifolia: Swainsona galegifolia (smooth Darling pea) is a flowering plant in the genus Swainsona in the family Fabaceae, native to Australia. It produces swainsonine.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.FucoseSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide b-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase: N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (, uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-acetylneuraminyl(alpha2->3)galactosyl(beta1->4)glucosyl beta1->4-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-alpha-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetylneuraminyl-(2->3)-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 4-beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionDolichol kinase deficiency: Dolichol kinase deficiency is a cutaneous condition caused by a mutation in the dolichol kinase gene.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Beta Cells: Beta cells are heavily engaged in the synthesis and secretion of insulin. They are therefore particularly sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response(UPR).Carbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Dystroglycan: Dystroglycan is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAG1 gene.Soft laser desorption: Soft laser desorption is laser desorption of large molecules that results in ionization without fragmentation. "Soft" in the context of ion formation means forming ions without breaking chemical bonds.CisternaSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.DPM2: Dolichol phosphate-mannose biosynthesis regulatory protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DPM2 gene.Glycoside: In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms.Glucosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase: Glucosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (, lactosylceramide synthase, uridine diphosphate-galactose:glucosyl ceramide beta 1-4 galactosyltransferase, UDP-Gal:glucosylceramide beta1->4galactosyltransferase, GalT-2, UDP-galactose:beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-alpha-D-galactose:beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAtomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.CastanospermineMolar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.WcaG RNA motif: The wcaG RNA motif is an RNA structure conserved in some bacteria that was detected by bioinformatics. wcaG RNAs are found in certain phages that infect cyanobacteria.MonosaccharideCell membranePseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Sialic acid: Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Advanced glycation end-product: In human nutrition and biology, advanced glycation end products, known as AGEs, are substances that can be a factor in the development or worsening of many degenerative diseases, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic renal failure, and Alzheimer's disease.OST4: In molecular biology, OST4 (Dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase subunit 4) is a subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Neuraminidase inhibitor: Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of drugs which block the neuraminidase enzyme. They are commonly used as antiviral drugs because they block the function of viral neuraminidases of the influenza virus, by preventing its reproduction by budding from the host cell.GalactoseBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Invertase: Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar). Alternate names for invertase include , saccharase, glucosucrase, beta-h-fructosidase, beta-fructosidase, invertin, sucrase, maxinvert L 1000, fructosylinvertase, alkaline invertase, acid invertase, and the systematic name: beta-fructofuranosidase.Abscisate beta-glucosyltransferase: Abscisate beta-glucosyltransferase (, ABA-glucosyltransferase, ABA-GTase, AOG) is an enzyme with system name UDP-D-glucose:abscisate beta-D-glucosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionMannosamineProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Pichia pastoris: Pichia pastoris is a species of methylotrophic yeast. Pichia is widely used for protein expression using recombinant DNA techniques.Amino sugarJacalin: Jacalin is a plant based lectin, but not a legume lectin, found in jackfruit. It has been studied for capturing O-glycoproteins such as mucins and IgA1, for potential applications in human immunology.Dolichol monophosphate mannoseFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Knotted protein: Knotted proteins are proteins whose backbones entangle themselves in a knot. One can imagine pulling a protein chain from both termini, as though pulling a string from both ends.Mannose 1-phosphateAffinity chromatography: Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand.Reaction coordinate