Glaukomflecken: Glaukomflecken simply means glaucoma flecks.Dr Khairul Nazri Mohammad (Articles' Author), Waterford General Hospital, IRELAND It is anterior subcapsular or capsular opacity of the lens associated with focal epithelial infarct from past acute angle closure glaucoma.Intraocular pressureGlaucomaLevobetaxololOptic disc: The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. BecauseMeridian (perimetry, visual field): Meridian (plural: "meridians") is used in perimetry and in specifying visual fields. According to IPS Perimetry Standards 1978 (2002): "Perimetry is the measurement of [an observer's] visual functions ...Glaucoma surgeryImbert-Fick law: The Imbert-Fick "law" was invented by Hans Goldmann (1899–1991) to give his newly marketed tonometer (with the help of the Haag-Streit Company) a quasi-scientific basis; it is mentioned in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, but not in any books of physics. According to Goldmann,Goldmann H.Plaque-forming unit: In virology, a plaque-forming unit (PFU) is a measure of the number of particles capable of forming plaques per unit volume, such as virus particles. It is a functional measurement rather than a measurement of the absolute quantity of particles: viral particles that are defective or which fail to infect their target cell will not produce a plaque and thus will not be counted.Pseudoexfoliation syndromeTrabecular meshwork: The trabecular meshwork is an area of tissue in the eye located around the base of the cornea, near the ciliary body, and is responsible for draining the aqueous humor from the eye via the anterior chamber (the chamber on the front of the eye covered by the cornea).Potocki–Shaffer syndrome: Potocki–Shaffer syndrome (PSS), also known as DEFECT11 syndrome or chromosome 11p11.2 deletion syndrome, is a rare contiguous gene syndrome that results from the microdeletion of section 11.Operation Eyesight Universal: Operation Eyesight Universal is a Canada-based international development organisation, founded in 1963. It works to prevent avoidable blindness and to cure blindness that is treatable.Iris dilator muscleNerve fiber layer: The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.LogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.LatanoprostPediatric ophthalmology: Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.Artificial tearsBuphthalmosCoherence theory: In physics, coherence theory is the study of optical effects arising from partially coherent light and radio sources. Partially coherent sources are sources where the coherence time or coherence length are limited by bandwidth, by thermal noise, or by other effect.TimololAqueous humour: The aqueous humour is a transparent, gelatinous fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations. It is secreted from the ciliary epithelium, a structure supporting the lens.Optic nerve tumor: An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. These tumors are typically a benign; they can grow, but rarely transform into a malignancy.List of optometry schools: The following list of optometry schools covers many countries, although the list is not exhaustive. Internationally, optometry as a profession includes different levels of education.Blind People's Association: The Blind People’s Association (BPA) is an organisation in India which promotes comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with all categories of disabilities through education, training, employment, community based rehabilitation, integrated education, research, publications, human resource development and other innovative means.Scanning laser ophthalmoscopyAnterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis: Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) is a failure of the normal development of the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye. It leads to anomalies in the structure of the mature anterior segment, associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and corneal opacity.Congenital cataractTrabeculoplasty: Trabeculoplasty is a laser treatment for glaucoma. It is done on an argon laser equipped slit lamp, using a Goldmann gonioscope lens mirror.Neuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Guiding Eyes for the Blind: Yorktown Heights, New YorkCataract surgeryOutline of photography: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to photography:Ciliary body: The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor. The ciliary body is part of the uvea, the layer of tissue that delivers oxygen and nutrients to the eye tissues.TravoprostOtago NORML: Otago University NORML (also known as simply Otago NORML or NORML Dunedin) is a pro cannabis law reform student club at the University of Otago, affiliated to the Otago University Students Association. It is not officially related to the national New Zealand cannabis law reform organisation NORML New Zealand or the international organisation NORML, based in the US, however the three organisations do interact at an unofficial level.Prostaglandin analogue: Synthetic prostaglandin analogues are molecules which are manufactured to bind to a prostaglandin receptor.Retinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Lidanserin: Lidanserin (INN; ZK-33,839) is a drug which acts as a combined 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. It was developed as an antihypertensive agent but was never marketed.Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples.Berk–Tabatznik syndrome: Berk–Tabatznik syndrome is a condition with an unknown cause that shows symptoms of short stature, congenital optic atrophy and brachytelephalangy. This condition is extremely rare with only two cases being found.ScotomaLandolt CConjunctiva: The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (white part of the eye). It is composed of non-keratinized, stratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells, and also stratified columnar epithelium.Fowkes hypothesis: The Fowkes hypothesis (after F. M.Barbados Water Authority: Barbados Water Authority Limited (BWA), a government statutory corporation, is the sole provider of water services.Visiting Barbados FAQ: Can I drink tap water?Optimax: Optimax is a UK-based laser eye treatment specialist which has 38 locations nationwide. Optimax was established as one of the first private clinics to offer laser eye surgery.AphakiaCirculus arteriosus major: Circulus arteriosus major, also called "major circulus arteriosus of iris" CIA or CIAM, is formed by anastomosis of the anterior ciliary arteries with the Long posterior ciliary arteries at the ciliary body. It supplies the iris, ciliary body and choroid.Diuretic: A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. This includes forced diuresis.Arterial resistivity index: The arterial resistivity index (also called as Resistance index, abbreviated as RI), developed by Leandre Pourcelot, is a measure of pulsatile blood flow that reflects the resistance to blood flow caused by microvascular bed distal to the site of measurement.BetaxololNigro protocol: Nigro protocol is the pre-operative use of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin and medical radiation for squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal of less than 5 cm, followed by surgical excision if necessary. Specifically, in the protocol, the patient receives 30 Gy of radiation over a three-week period, as well as continuous administration of fluorouracil for the first four days and on days 29-32, with the mitomycin administered on the first day of treatment.ConjunctivochalasisFlashlight: A flashlight or torch in British English, is a portable hand-held electric light. Usually, the source of the light is a small incandescent light bulb or light-emitting diode (LED).Atomic force acoustic microscopy: Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy (AFAM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). It is a combination of acoustics and atomic force microscopy.Laser coagulation: Laser coagulation or laser photocoagulation surgery is used to treat a number of eye diseases and has become widely used in recent decades. During the procedure, a laser is used to finely cauterize ocular blood vessels to attempt to bring about various therapeutic benefits.Purtscher's retinopathy: Purtscher's retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye (retina) is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other types of trauma, such as long bone fractures, or with several non-traumatic systemic diseases.Tadpole pupil: The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. Due to certain muscle spasms in the eye, the pupil can resemble a tadpole, which consists of a circular body, no arms or legs, and a tail.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Red reflex: The red reflex refers to the reddish-orange reflection of light from the eye's retina that is observed when using an ophthalmoscope or retinoscope from approximately 30 cm / 1 foot. This examination is usually performed in a dimly lit or dark room.Low vision assessment: Low vision is both a subspeciality and a condition. Optometrists and Ophthalmologists after their training may undergo further training in Low vision assessment and management.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Tumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device: Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device (OVD) is viscoelastic solution used in eye surgery also referred to as viscoelastic agents. Their introduction has had a profound influence on the evolution of extracapsular and phacoemulsification surgery, and their use has decreased the incidence of corneal edema as aBiocidal Products DirectiveAutomated lamellar keratoplasty: Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty, commonly abbreviated to ALK uses a device called a microkeratome to separate a thin layer of the cornea and create a flap. The flap is then folded back, and the microkeratome removes a thin disc of corneal stroma below.Bullous keratopathyAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.