Retromolar space: The retromolar space or retromolar gap is a space at the rear of a mandible, between the back of the last molar and the anterior edge of the ascending ramus where it crosses the alveolar margin.Gingival enlargement: Gingival enlargement, (also termed gingival overgrowth, hypertrophic gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia, or gingival hypertrophy, and sometimes abbreviated to GO), is an increase in the size of the gingiva (gums). It is a common feature of gingival disease.Gingival disease: A gingival disease is a disorder primarily affecting the gingiva.Drug-related gingival hyperplasia: Drug-related gingival hyperplasia is a cutaneous condition characterized by enlargement of the gums noted during the first year of drug treatment. There are three drug classes that are associated with this condition namely, anticonvulsants (such as phenyotoin and phenobartibal), calcium channel blocker (such as amlopidine, nifedipine and verapamil) and cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant Although the mechanism of drug related gingival hyperplasia is not well understood, some risk factors for the condition include the duration of drug use and poor oral hygiene.RASopathy: The RASopathies are developmental syndromes caused by germline mutations in genes that alter the Ras subfamily and Mitogen-activated protein kinases that control signal transduction, including:Desquamative gingivitisFranz Hein: Franz Hein (1892–1976) was a German scientist and artist.Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease: Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases is one of the seven categories of periodontitis as defined by the American Academy of Periodontology 1999 classification system. At least 16 systemic diseases have been linked to periodontitis.Bone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.PancreatoblastomaPorphyromonas gingivalis: Porphyromonas gingivalis belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, pathogenic bacterium. It forms black colonies on blood agar.Pocket reduction surgery: In dentistry, pocket reduction surgery is a periodontal surgery performed in order to reduce the probeable depth of the gingival sulcus (known as a periodontal pocket in disease) to allow for less plaque accumulation and greater access for hygiene. Reducing the depths of the periodontal pockets eliminates an environment that is hospitable for the more virulent periodontal pathogens.Junctional epithelium: The junctional epithelium (JE) is that epithelium which lies at, and in health also defines, the base of the gingival sulcus. The probing depth of the gingival sulcus is measured by a calibrated periodontal probe.Chronic periodontitis: Chronic periodontitis is a common disease of the oral cavity consisting of chronic inflammation of the periodontal tissues that is caused by accumulation of profuse amounts of dental plaque.Cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms: Cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms is a group of tumors.GingivoplastyDental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.
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