Gene duplication: Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.ParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.Low copy repeats: Low copy repeats (LCRs), also known as segmental duplications (SDs), are highly homologous sequence elements within the eukaryotic genome. They are typically 10–300 kb in length, and bear greater than 95% sequence identity.Coles PhillipsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.CS-BLASTSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asChromosome regionsCopy number analysis: Copy number analysis usually refers to the process of analyzing data produced by a test for DNA copy number variation in patient's sample. Such analysis helps detect chromosomal copy number variation that may cause or may increase risks of various critical disorders.Branchiostoma lanceolatum: Branchiostoma lanceolatum is a lancelet in the subphylum Cephalochordata. It is a marine invertebrate found in soft substrates in shallow seas.Genetic variation: right|thumbSaccoglossus: Saccoglossus is a genus of acorn worm (Class Enteropneusta). It is the largest genus in this class, with 18 species.AmborellaAlternative splicing: Alternative splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.Pelizaeus–Merzbacher diseaseLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Intron: right|thumbnail|270px|Representation of intron and [[exons within a simple gene containing a single intron.]]Tandem repeat: Tandem repeats occur in DNA when a pattern of one or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. Several protein domains also form tandem repeats within their amino acid primary structure, such as Armadillo repeats.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Chromothripsis: Chromothripsis is the phenomenon by which up to thousands of clustered chromosomal rearrangements occur in a single event in localised and confined genomic regions in one or a few chromosomes, and is known to be involved in both cancer and congenital diseases. It occurs through one massive genomic rearrangement during a single catastrophic event in the cell's history.Ultra-conserved element: An ultra-conserved element (UCE) is a region of DNA that is identical in at least two different species. One of the first studies of UCEs showed that human DNA sequences of length 200 nucleotides or greater were entirely conserved (identical nucleic acid sequence) in both rats and mice.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Deletion (genetics)PaleopolyploidyWeedy rice: Weedy rice, also known as red rice, is a variety of rice (Oryza) that produces far fewer grains per plant than cultivated rice and is therefore considered a pest. The name "weedy rice" is used for all types and variations of rice which show some characteristic features of cultivated rice and grow as weeds in commercial rice fields.GAI (Arabidopsis thaliana gene)Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionPlatypus venomRecombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Tetraodontidae: Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes. The family includes many familiar species, which are variously called pufferfish, puffers, balloonfish, blowfish, bubblefish, globefish, swellfish, toadfish, toadies, honey toads, sugar toads, and sea squab.Pericentriolar material: Pericentriolar material (PCM, sometimes also called pericentriolar matrix) is an amorphous mass of protein which makes up the part of the animal centrosome that surrounds the two centrioles. The PCM contains proteins responsible for microtubule nucleation and anchoring including γ-tubulin, pericentrin and ninein.Inshore hagfish: The inshore hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri) is a hagfish found in the Northwest Pacific, from the Sea of Japan and across eastern Japan to Taiwan. It has six pairs of gill pouches and gill apertures.BrachiopodSquamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Ty5 retrotransposon: The Ty5 is a type of retrotransposon native to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae organism.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.Nippleus Erectus: Nippleus Erectus was a drummer of GWAR (played by former White Cross member Rob Mosby), who did all the drumming for Hell-O. He is also credited for the drums on Scumdogs of the Universe, though it was Jizmak Da Gusha who played them.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Oxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Thermal cyclerDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Chinese rice fishDrosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Sequence clustering: In bioinformatics, sequence clustering algorithms attempt to group biological sequences that are somehow related. The sequences can be either of genomic, "transcriptomic" (ESTs) or protein origin.Morphant: An organism which has been treated with a morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a morphant.Centrosome cycle: Centrosomes are the major microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in mammalian cells. Failure of centrosome regulation can cause mistakes in chromosome segregation and is associated with aneuploidy.OpsinSurfeit of Lampreys: Surfeit of Lampreys is a detective novel by Ngaio Marsh; it is the tenth novel to feature Roderick Alleyn, and was first published in 1941. The plot concerns the murder of a British peer, a theme to which Marsh would return; the novel was published as Death of a Peer in the United States.Enteric duplication cyst: Enteric duplication cysts, sometimes simply called duplication cysts, are rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. They most frequently occur in the small intestine, particularly the ileum, but can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract.