Instruments used in gastroenterology: Instruments used specially in Gastroenterology are as follows:Reactive gastropathy: In gastroenterology, reactive gastropathy, also chemical gastropathy, is an abnormality in the stomach caused by chemicals, e.g.Nepean HospitalGastric erosion: Gastric erosion occurs when the mucous membrane lining the stomach becomes inflamed. Some drugs, as tablets, can irritate this mucous membrane, especially drugs taken for arthritis and muscular disorders, steroids, and aspirin.CagA: Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI). H.Procedural sedation and analgesia: Procedural sedation and analgesia, previously referred to as conscious sedation, is defined as "a technique of administering sedatives or dissociative agents with or without analgesics to induce a state that allows the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining cardiorespiratory function."GastritisAntacidStomach diseaseGlasgow-Blatchford score: The Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) is a screening tool to assess the likelihood that a patient with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) will need to have medical intervention such as a blood transfusion or endoscopic intervention. The tool may be able to identify patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital after a UGIB.Gastric mucosal barrier: The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to contain acid.Brain biopsyGastrectomyReferral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.EsophagitisFunctional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.John Lykoudis: John Lykoudis (1910 in Missolonghi – 1980) was a general practitioner in Greece who treated patients suffering from peptic ulcer disease with antibiotics long before it was commonly recognized that bacteria were a dominant cause for the disease.Intestinal metaplasia: 200px|right|thumb|Intestinal metaplasia (top middle of image) of the gastric antrum and [[stomach cancer|adenocarcinoma of the stomach (left/centre of image). H&E stain.Endoscopy unit: An endoscopy unit refers to a dedicated area where medical procedures are performed with endoscopes, which are cameras used to visualize structures within the body, such as the digestive tract and genitourinary system. Endoscopy units may be located within a hospital, incorporated within other medical care centres, or may be stand-alone in nature.Virtual colonoscopy: Virtual colonoscopy (VC, also called CT Colonography or CT Pneumocolon) is a medical imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon (large intestine) from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way to the lower end of the small intestine and display them on a screen. The procedure is used to diagnose colon and bowel disease, including polyps, diverticulosis and cancer.Gastrin: Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas.Henry Whitelock Torrens: Henry Whitelock Torrens (1806–1852), son of Major Henry Torrens, was born on May 20, 1806. He received his B.Little gastrin IAcute esophageal necrosisErythromycin breath test: The erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is a method used to measure metabolism (oxidation and elimination from the system) by a part of the cytochrome P450 system. Erythromycin is tagged with carbon-14 and given as an intravenous injection; after 20 minutes the subject blows up a balloon and the carbon dioxide exhaled that is tagged with carbon-14 shows the activity of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme on the erythromycin.Stretta procedure: Stretta is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A catheter is used to deliver radiofrequency energy to the lower esophageal sphincter, muscle and gastric cardia.Central Cardiac Audit Database