Gastric mucosal barrier: The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to contain acid.GastritisGastric erosion: Gastric erosion occurs when the mucous membrane lining the stomach becomes inflamed. Some drugs, as tablets, can irritate this mucous membrane, especially drugs taken for arthritis and muscular disorders, steroids, and aspirin.CagA: Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI). H.Reactive gastropathy: In gastroenterology, reactive gastropathy, also chemical gastropathy, is an abnormality in the stomach caused by chemicals, e.g.Stomach diseaseGastric acid: Gastric acid is a digestive fluid, formed in the stomach. It is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl) .Intestinal metaplasia: 200px|right|thumb|Intestinal metaplasia (top middle of image) of the gastric antrum and [[stomach cancer|adenocarcinoma of the stomach (left/centre of image). H&E stain.Secretagogue: A secretagogue is a substance that causes another substance to be secreted. One example is gastrin,secretagogue at eMedicine Dictionary which stimulates the H/K ATPase in the parietal cells (increased gastric acid production by the stomach).Gastrin: Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas.Ectopic testisLittle gastrin IHelicobacter pullorum: Helicobacter pullorum is a bacterium in the Helicobacteraceae family, Campylobacterales order. It was isolated from the liver, duodenum, and caecum of broiler and layer chickens, and from humans with gastroenteritis.Hydrochloric acidPentagastrinEpithelial dysplasia: Epithelial dysplasia, a term becoming increasingly referred to as intraepithelial neoplasia, is the sum of various disturbances of epithelial proliferation and differentiation as seen microscopically. Individual cellular features of dysplasia are called epithelial atypia.Johann Friedrich MeckelHistamine dihydrochloride: Histamine dihydrochloride (INN, trade name Ceplene) is a salt of histamine which is used as a drug for the prevention of relapse in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is an FDA approvedhttp://www.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Brain biopsyDodecameric protein: A dodecameric protein has a quaternary structure consisting of 12 protein subunits in a complex. Dodecameric complexes can have a number of subunit 'topologies', but typically only a few of the theoretically possible subunit arrangements are observed in protein structures.Mucus: In vertebrates, mucus ( ; adjectival form: "mucous") is a slippery secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes. Mucous fluid is typically produced from cells found in mucous glands.CimetidineJohn Lykoudis: John Lykoudis (1910 in Missolonghi – 1980) was a general practitioner in Greece who treated patients suffering from peptic ulcer disease with antibiotics long before it was commonly recognized that bacteria were a dominant cause for the disease.Aspartate proteaseCCK-4MetiamideSustentacular cellGastric chief cell: A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants. The cell stains basophilic upon H&E staining due to the large proportion of rough endoplasmic reticulum in its cytoplasm.CelecoxibOmeprazoleSucralfateMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Acute esophageal necrosisGlasgow-Blatchford score: The Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) is a screening tool to assess the likelihood that a patient with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) will need to have medical intervention such as a blood transfusion or endoscopic intervention. The tool may be able to identify patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital after a UGIB.AspirinSquamous epithelial cell: In anatomy, squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.Norman Barrett: Norman Rupert Barrett (1903–1979) was an Australian-born British thoracic surgeon who is primarily remembered for describing Barrett's oesophagus.Adenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Pteridium aquilinum: Pteridium aquilinum (bracken, brake or common bracken), also known as "eagle fern," is a species of fern occurring in temperate and subtropical regions in both hemispheres. The extreme lightness of its spores has led to its global distribution.Oil immersionStratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.Enterochromaffin cell: Enterochromaffin (EC) cells, or "Kulchitsky cells", are a type of enteroendocrine and neuroendocrine cell occurring in the epithelia lining the lumen of the digestive tract and the respiratory tract that release serotonin.Nepean HospitalGefarnateEsophageal disease: Esophageal diseases can derive from congenital conditions, or they can be acquired later in life.Enterochromaffin-like cell: Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cells found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, in particular in the vicinity of parietal cells, that aid in the production of gastric acid via the release of histamine. They are also considered a type of enteroendocrine cell.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Campylobacter concisus: Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive.COX-3: COX-3 is an enzyme that is encoded by the PTGS1 (COX1) gene, but is not functional in humans. COX-3 is the third and most recently discovered cyclooxygenase (COX) isozyme, the others being COX-1 and COX-2.Sodium pertechnetateRødgrød: Rødgrød (Danish, ), rote Grütze (German), or Rode Grütt (Low German), meaning "red groats", is a sweet fruit dish from Denmark and Germany. The name of the dish in Danish features many of the elements that make Danish pronunciation difficult for non-native speakers, so 'rødgrød med fløde' (red groats with cream) is thus a commonly used shibboleth.Gastrocolic reflex: The gastrocolic reflex or gastrocolic response is one of a number of physiological reflexes controlling the motility, or peristalsis, of the gastrointestinal tract. It involves an increase in motility of the colon in response to stretch in the stomach and byproducts of digestion in the small intestine.Prostaglandin EPernicious anemiaHyperplasia: Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation. It may lead to the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes confused with benign neoplasia or benign tumor.
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