Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry: right|300 px|Example of a GC-MS instrument|thumbDrug test: A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva—to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content).Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Fredric Rieders: Fredric Rieders (July 9, 1922 – November 26, 2005) was an internationally renowned forensic toxicologist. He was born in Vienna, Austria.Electron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Electrospray ionizationEssential oil: An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove.CodeineCertified reference materials: Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are ‘controls’ or standards used to check the quality and metrological traceability of products, to validate analytical measurement methods, or for the calibration of instruments.Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine: 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine – abbreviated to Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, MDEA, or MDE and known colloquially as "Eve" – is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. It is consumed primarily for its euphoric and empathogenic effects.To Kau Wan: To Kau Wan () is a bay on the north shore of northeast Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Contaminated soil from Penny's Bay was transferred here for thermal desorption to separate the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) along with cement immobilization of metal contamination from Penny's Bay.CalibrationBath salts (drug): Bath salts is a term used in North America to describe a number of recreational designer drugs. The name derives from instances in which the drugs were sold disguised as true bath salts.Longjing tea: Longjing tea (), sometimes called by its literal translated name Dragon Well tea, is a variety of pan-roasted green tea from the area of Longjing Village near Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province, China. It is produced mostly by hand and renowned for its high quality, earning it the China Famous Tea title.Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act: The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act of 1914. The act was a revenue-producing act and, while it provided penalties for violations, it did not give authority to the states to exercise police power regarding either seizure of drugs used in illicit trade or punishment of those responsible.Volumetric heat capacity: Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).Tandem mass spectrometry: 300 px|right|thumb|A [[Quadrupole mass analyzer|quadrupole time-of-flight hybrid tandem mass spectrometer.]]Deuterium NMR: Deuterium NMR is NMR spectroscopy of deuterium (2H or D), an isotope of hydrogen. Deuterium is an isotope with spin = 1, unlike hydrogen which is spin = 1/2.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides: Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides (often abbreviated as metal silylamides) are coordination complexes composed of a cationic metal with anionic bis(trimethylsilyl)amide ligands and are part of a broader category of metal amides.Ajulemic acidHair analysisAmmonia volatilization from urea: Urea (46-0-0) accounts for more than fifty percent of the world’s nitrogenous fertilizers.Schwab, G.OxymorphoneAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.List of drug interactions: The following is a list of interactions with various prescription and over-the counter drugs:Chromatographic response function: Chromatographic response function, often abbreviated to CRF, is a coefficient which measures the quality of the separation in the result of a chromatography.Metabolome: The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample. The biological sample can be a cell, a cellular organelle, an organ, a tissue, a tissue extract, a biofluid or an entire organism.HallucinogenPrenatal methamphetamine exposure: Prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is the exposure of a prenatal fetus to methamphetamine when a woman uses the drug during her pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MA) has shown increasing popularity in the past two decades among women of childbearing age.UrinalysisBiodegradationCatalytic cycle: A catalytic cycle in chemistry is a term for a multistep reaction mechanism that involves a catalyst.Kinetics of catalytic reactions 2005 M.Opioid overdose: .0, -Hydrocodone/ibuprofenMetabolomics: Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation: Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (also called the Sharpless bishydroxylation) is the chemical reaction of an alkene with osmium tetroxide in the presence of a chiral quinine ligand to form a vicinal diol.GHB receptor: The γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptor (GHBR), originally identified as GPR172A, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds the neurotransmitter and psychoactive drug γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).Sweat test: The sweat test measures the concentration of chloride that is excreted in sweat. It is used to screen for cystic fibrosis (CF).Musk xyleneSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Fast atom bombardment: Fast atom bombardment (FAB) is an ionization technique used in mass spectrometry in which a beam of high energy atoms strikes a surface to create ions. It was developed by Michael Barber at the University of Manchester.Biotransformation: Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation.Hydroxylation: Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound. In biochemistry, hydroxylation reactions are often facilitated by enzymes called hydroxylases.Soft laser desorption: Soft laser desorption is laser desorption of large molecules that results in ionization without fragmentation. "Soft" in the context of ion formation means forming ions without breaking chemical bonds.Issa HayatouFluorotelomer alcohol: Fluorotelomer alcohols, or FTOHs, are fluorotelomers with an alcohol functional group. They are volatile precursors to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, such as PFOA and PFNA, and other compounds.CitronellalIsotopic signature: An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material. The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Isotope-coded affinity tag: An Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) is an isotopic labeling method used for quantitative proteomics by mass spectrometry that uses chemical labeling reagents. "Rapid quantitative analysis of proteins or protein function in complex mixtures," Rudolf Hans Aebersold et al.Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.List of poisonous plantsPholedrineHeptadecanoic acidOxycodone/paracetamolCocaine intoxicationNordazepamSubstituted amphetamine: Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents. The compounds in this class span a variety of pharmacological subclasses, including stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, among others.HexaneAnalytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.The dose makes the poison: "The dose makes the poison" () is an adage intended to indicate a basic principle of toxicology. It is credited to Paracelsus who expressed the classic toxicology maxim "All things are poison and nothing is without poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison.Supercritical carbon dioxideHydromorphoneDodecaneHexolAsaroneUnsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon to carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond are called alkynes.Saliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).EndosulfanSarett oxidationRice bran oilPesticide residues in New Zealand: Pesticide residues are of concern in New Zealand and foods are regularly checked to see if they are within set limits.List of poisonings: This is a list of poisonings in chronological order of victim. It also includes confirmed attempted and fictional poisonings.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.ForskolinDextropropoxypheneMuramic acidBenzo(k)fluorantheneBenzophenone-n: Benzphenone-1 – benzophenone-12 (BP-1 –BP-12) are UVA/UVB absorbers. Most of them are used in sunscreens.
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