Fructose malabsorptionHereditary fructose intoleranceFructose bisphosphatase deficiencyPhosphofructokinaseFructokinase: Fructokinase (/fruc•to•ki•nase/ [-ki´nas]) (), also known as D-fructokinase or D-fructose (D-mannose) kinase,DBGET ENZYME: 2.7.Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase: Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (), often just aldolase, is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction that splits the aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). Aldolase can also produce DHAP from other (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates such as fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate.Glucose transporterSweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Anaerobic glycolysis: Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes.Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIGlucuronamideUptake hexose phosphateGlucokinase regulatory protein: The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in hepatocytes (liver cells). GKRP binds and moves glucokinase (GK), thereby controlling both activity and intracellular location of this key enzyme of glucose metabolism.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DihydroxyacetonePhosphotransferase: Phosphotransferases are a category of enzymes (EC number 2.7) that catalyze phosphorylation reactions.Glucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.FODMAP: FODMAPs are short chain carbohydrates (oligosaccharides), disaccharides, monosaccharides and related alcohols that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. These include short chain (oligo-) saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactose (galactans), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols) such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Arterial tortuosity syndrome: Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare congenital connective tissue condition disorder characterized by elongation and generalized tortuosity of the major arteries including the aorta. It is associated with hyperextensible skin and hypermobility of joints, however symptoms vary depending on the patient.XylitolPhosphocarrier proteinSports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Triose phosphate translocator: The triose phosphate translocator is an integral membrane protein found in the inner membrane of chloroplasts. It exports triose phosphate (Dihydroxyacetone phosphate) in exchange for inorganic phosphate and is therefore classified as an antiporter.Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase: Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), alternatively known as phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) or phosphohexose isomerase (PHI), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPI gene on chromosome 19.Sorbitol dehydrogenase: Sorbitol dehydrogenase (or SDH) is a cytosolic enzyme. In humans this protein is encoded by the SORD gene.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.SLC2A11: Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) also known as glucose transporter type 10/11 (GLUT-10/11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A11 gene.MalabsorptionInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Carbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==MonosaccharideTrisodium citrateINPP5E: 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, also known as phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase or Pharbin, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the INPP5E gene.HexokinaseMannitol motility medium: Mannitol motility medium is a bacterial growth medium used to detect the ability of bacteria to ferment mannite and produce nitrogen gas; and to indicate the motility of the organism.Lactic acid fermentationGalactoseInhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Glucagon rescueGlycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolInvertase: Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar). Alternate names for invertase include , saccharase, glucosucrase, beta-h-fructosidase, beta-fructosidase, invertin, sucrase, maxinvert L 1000, fructosylinvertase, alkaline invertase, acid invertase, and the systematic name: beta-fructofuranosidase.Aldonic acid