Formate dehydrogenase (acceptor): Formate dehydrogenase (acceptor) (, FDHH, FDH-H, FDH-O, formate dehydrogenase H, formate dehydrogenase O) is an enzyme with system name formate:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionHydrogen gas porosity: Hydrogen gas porosity is an aluminium casting defect under the form of a porosity or void in an aluminium casting caused by a high level of hydrogen gas (H2) dissolved in the aluminium at liquid phase. Because the solubility of hydrogen in solid aluminium is much smaller than in liquid aluminium, when the aluminium freezes, the dissolved hydrogen gas creates porosity in solid aluminium.Hydrogenase: A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), as shown below:Methoxide: Methoxides are organic salts and the simplest alkoxides. Sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide have widespread use, though other metal-cation variants such as lithium methoxide, rubidium methoxide, caesium methoxide, and francium methoxide exist as well.Methanopyrus: In taxonomy, Methanopyrus is a genus of the Methanopyraceae.See the NCBI webpage on Methanopyrus.Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase: In enzymology, an aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase () is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionMolybdenum: Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek , meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores.McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Atmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.Methyl chloroformateList of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsLactic acid fermentationDesulfococcus oleovorans Strain Hxd3: Desulfococcus oleovorans Strain Hxd3 was isolated from the saline water phase of an oil-water separator from a northern German oil field.Aeckersberg, F.Butyl acetate (disambiguation): Butyl acetate most often refers to n-butyl acetate. However, there are other isomers that may be considered to be butyl acetates:Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Sodium oxalate: http://chem.sis.Acetic oxalic anhydridePeroxynitrous acidIron(II) fumarateIntramembrane protease: Intramembrane proteases (IMPs), also known as intermembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs), are enzymes that have the property of cleaving transmembrane domains of integral membrane proteins. All known intramembrane proteases are themselves integral membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains, and they have their active sites buried within the lipid bilayer of cellular membranes.Electron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Sodium tungstateList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.Nitrate reductase (NADPH): Nitrate reductase (NADPH) (, assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-nitrate reductase, NADPH-nitrate reductase, assimilatory NADPH-nitrate reductase, triphosphopyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase, NADPH:nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase (NADPH2), NADPH2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with system name nitrite:NADP+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalises the following chemical reactionMethanogen: Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions. They are classified as archaea, a domain distinct from bacteria.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Clostridium phytofermentans: Clostridium phytofermentans is an obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium. It forms spherical spores.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.SECIS elementColes PhillipsObligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.TrimethylaminuriaSelenium in biologyFormate-nitrite transporter: Formate-nitrite transporters are a family of evolutionarily related transmembrane bacterial and archaebacterial proteins involved in transporting formate or nitrite. They include:Methylococcaceae: The Methylococcaceae are a family of bacteria that obtain their carbon and energy from methane, called methanotrophs..FormaldehydeIsocyanide: An isocyanide (also called isonitrile or carbylamine) is an organic compound with the functional group -N≡C. It is the isomer of the related cyanide (-C≡N), hence the prefix iso.Cofactor Engineering: Cofactor engineering, a subset of metabolic engineering, is defined as the manipulation of the use of cofactors in an organism’s metabolic pathways. In cofactor engineering, the concentrations of cofactors are changed in order to maximize or minimize metabolic fluxes.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Paulo Moura: Paulo Moura (15 July 1932–12 July 2010"MEMÓRIA: Paulo Moura silencia" Zero Hora in Portuguese, 15 July 2010) was a Brazilian clarinetist and saxophonist.Eubacterium oxidoreducens: Eubacterium oxidoreducens is a Gram positive bacterium species in the genus Eubacterium.Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are those bacteria and archaea that can obtain energy by oxidizing organic compounds or molecular hydrogen (H2) while reducing sulfate () to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In a sense, these organisms "breathe" sulfate rather than oxygen in a form of anaerobic respiration.Sodium thiosulfateSodium tetrasulfideTetrahydromethanopterinBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Acetic acid bacteria: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during fermentation. They are gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.Oxalobacter formigenes: Oxalobacter formigenes is an oxalate-degrading anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the large intestine of numerous vertebrates, including humans. O.Yamaguchi esterification: The Yamaguchi esterification is the chemical reaction of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (TCBC, Yamaguchi reagent) to form a mixed anhydride which, upon reaction with an alcohol in the presence of stoichiometric amount of DMAP, produces the desired ester. It was first reported by Masaru Yamaguchi et al.BicarbonateBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.ChlorateCalcium formateFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.AcetyltransferaseFNR regulon: The fnr (fumarate and nitrate reductase) gene of Escherichia coli encodes a transcriptional activator (FNR) which is required for the expression of a number of genes involved in anaerobic respiratory pathways. The FNR (Fumarate and Nitrate reductase Regulatory) protein of E.Prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein: In molecular biology, the prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.PterinPermissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Wujing Zongyao: The Wujing Zongyao (), or the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044. It contains the earliest known written formulas for gunpowder, made from saltpeter, sulphur, and charcoal, along with many added ingredients.Desulfovibrio vulgaris: Desulfovibrio vulgaris is a species of Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Desulfovibrio vulgaris is often used as a model organism for sulfur-reducing bacteria and was the first of such bacteria to have its genome sequenced.Pseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.Pyruvate formate lyase: Pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) () is an enzyme found in Escherichia coli and other organisms. It helps regulate anaerobic glucose metabolism.Operon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.Sodium propionateBiodegradation