Nutrition and cognition: Food is conventionally regarded as a means to provide energy and building material within the body. Recently, the ability of food to prevent and protect against diseases has started to become recognized, mainly in relation to the effects of nutrients on molecular processes within the body.Rostral neuropore: The rostral neuropore or anterior neuropore is a region corresponding to the opening of the embryonic neural tube in the anterior portion of the developing prosencephalon. The central nervous system develops from the neural tube, which initially starts as a plate of cells in the ectoderm and this is called the neural plate, the neural plate then undergoes folding and starts closing from the center of the developing fetus, this leads to two open ends, one situated cranially/rostrally and the other caudally.TetrahydromethanopterinMicronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Cobalamin biosynthesis: {{Infobox protein familyDihydrofolate reductase inhibitor: A dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor (DHFR inhibitor) is a molecule that inhibits the function of dihydrofolate reductase, and is a type of antifolate.Pre-conception counseling: Pre-conception counseling (also called pre-conceptual counseling) is a meeting with a health-care professional (generally a physician) by a woman before attempting to become pregnant. It generally includes a pre-conception risk assessment for any potential complications of pregnancy as well as modifications of risk factors, such as increasing folic acid intake to reduce the risk of neural tube defects and counseling on smoking cessation, alcohol reduction, and medications that may compromise fetal development.Folate receptor: Folate receptors bind folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of tetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells. It is then converted from monoglutamate to polyglutamate forms - such as 5- methyltetrahydrofolate - as only monoglutamate forms can be transported across cell membranes.MacrocytosisHematinic: A hematinic is a nutrient required for the formation of blood cells in the process of hematopoiesis. The principle hematinics are iron, B12, and folate.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Crustless bread: Crustless bread is bread without crusts. Panko is made from such a bread, which is produced by passing an electric current through the dough.MultivitaminUnifine mill: A Unifine mill is a single one-pass impact milling system which produces ultrafine-milled whole-grain wheat flour that requires no grain pre-treatment and no screening of the flour. Like the grist or stone mills that had dominated the flour industry for centuries, the bran, germ, and endosperm elements of grain are processed into a nutritious whole wheat flour in one step.FarletuzumabMethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methyl cycle, and it is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a cosubstrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.DiastematomyeliaAminopterinPlacebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.PterinPyridoxineGeneral Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsMicronutrient deficiency: Micronutrient deficiency or dietary deficiency is a lack of one or more of the micronutrients required plant or animal health. In humans and other animals they include both vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies, whereas in plants the term refers to deficiencies of essential trace minerals.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Methotrexate-induced papular eruption: Methotrexate-induced papular eruption appears in patients being treated with methotrexate, such as those with rheumatic disease, presenting with erythematous indurated papules, usually located on the proximal extremities.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Anencephaly-ine: -ine is a suffix used in chemistry to denote two kinds of substance. The first is a chemically basic and alkaloidal substance.Methylmalonic acidHealthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.ButacaineProkaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein: In molecular biology, the prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria.First pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.Erythrocrine: Erythrocrine describes red blood cell or erythrocyte for production and release of signaling molecules. The term “erythrocrine“ was coined by Song et al.SLC19A2: Thiamine transporter 1, also known as thiamine carrier 1 (TC1) or solute carrier family 19 member 2 (SLC19A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC19A2 gene. SLC19A2 is a thiamine transporter.Gestational thrombocytopeniaMethionineCubam: Cubam, is the term used to refer to a multi-ligand receptor located in the terminal ileum, specializing in absorption of vitamin B12. Cubam is essentially composed of amnionless (AMN), and cubilin.Iron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Geomelophagia: Geomelophagia is an unusual pica (medical eating disorder) See in iron-deficiency anemia] and is characterized by abnormal ingestion of raw [[potatoes. See Google books link.N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase: N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase (, hPAO-1, mPAO, hPAO) is an enzyme with system name N1-acetylpolyamine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-acetamidopropanal-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionElisha K. Green: Elisha K. Green (1839–1917) was an entrepreneur in Los Angeles, California, who "made a fortune out of windmills" and served for six years on the Common Council, the governing body of that city.Glucarpidase: HNOS (monomer)Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Royal College of Surgeons in IrelandDihydrofolate reductaseConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Yakult: is a probiotic dairy product made by fermenting a mixture of skimmed milk with a special strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus casei Shirota. It was created by Japanese scientist Minoru Shirota, who graduated from the Medical School of Kyoto University in 1930.Manipal Teaching HospitalFolinic acidBetaine: A betaine (BEET-ah-een, ) in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation (generally: onium ions) which bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxylate group which may not be adjacent to the cationic site. A betaine thus may be a specific type of zwitterion.National Birth Defects Prevention Network: The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) was founded in 1997. It is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit volunteer organization whose members are involved in birth defects surveillance, prevention and research.